rough

adjective
\ ˈrəf How to pronounce rough (audio) \
rougher; roughest

Definition of rough

 (Entry 1 of 4)

1a : marked by inequalities, ridges, or projections on the surface : coarse
b : covered with or made up of coarse and often shaggy hair rough-coated collie — compare smooth, wirehaired
c(1) : having a broken, uneven, or bumpy surface rough terrain
(2) : difficult to travel through or penetrate : wild into the rough woods— P. B. Shelley
2a : turbulent, tempestuous rough seas
b(1) : characterized by harshness, violence, or force
(2) : presenting a challenge : difficult rough to deal with— R. M. McAlmon
3 : coarse or rugged in character or appearance: such as
a : harsh to the ear
b : crude in style or expression
d : marked by a lack of refinement or grace : uncouth
4a : crude, unfinished rough carpentry
b : executed or ventured hastily, tentatively, or imperfectly a rough draft rough estimate also : approximate a rough idea

rough

adverb

Definition of rough (Entry 2 of 4)

2 British : without usual conveniences especially : without proper shelter become homeless and have to sleep roughLondon Times

rough

noun

Definition of rough (Entry 3 of 4)

1 : uneven ground covered with high grass, brush, and stones specifically : such ground bordering a golf fairway
2 : the rugged or disagreeable side or aspect hiking-camping admirers of nature in the rough— Eleanor Stirling
3a : something in a crude, unfinished, or preliminary state
b : broad outline : general terms the question … has been discussed in roughManchester Guardian Weekly
c : a hasty preliminary drawing or layout
4 : rowdy

rough

verb
roughed; roughing; roughs

Definition of rough (Entry 4 of 4)

transitive verb

2a : to subject to abuse : manhandle, beat usually used with up
b : to subject to unnecessary and intentional violence in a sport a penalty for roughing the passer
c : shell sense 3 used with upwas roughed up for six runs
3 : to calk or otherwise roughen (a horse's shoes) to prevent slipping
4a : to shape, make, or dress in a rough or preliminary way
b : to indicate the chief lines of rough out the structure of a building
rough it
: to live under harsh or primitive conditions

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Other Words from rough

Adjective

roughish \ ˈrə-​fish How to pronounce roughish (audio) \ adjective
roughness \ ˈrəf-​nəs How to pronounce roughness (audio) \ noun

Verb

rougher noun

Synonyms & Antonyms for rough

Synonyms: Adjective

Antonyms: Adjective

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Choose the Right Synonym for rough

Adjective

rough, harsh, uneven, rugged, scabrous mean not smooth or even. rough implies points, bristles, ridges, or projections on the surface. a rough wooden board harsh implies a surface or texture distinctly unpleasant to the touch. a harsh fabric that chafes the skin uneven implies a lack of uniformity in height, breadth, or quality. an old house with uneven floors rugged implies irregularity or roughness of land surface and connotes difficulty of travel. a rugged landscape scabrous implies scaliness or prickliness of surface. a scabrous leaf

synonyms see in addition rude

Examples of rough in a Sentence

Adjective He trimmed the rough edge of the paper. We traveled over rough dirt roads. They hiked through rough terrain. We were a bit shaken from the plane's rough landing. He went through a rough patch after his divorce. They've hit a few rough spots in their marriage. Despite a rough start, the team won more games this season than last. Adverb The engine is running a little rough. Life has been treating her pretty rough. He plays rough with the dog. people living rough on the streets Noun He hit his drive into the rough. He showed me a few roughs of the new building. Verb He was called for roughing the kicker.
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Recent Examples on the Web: Adjective Trump said to Zelenskiy, according to a rough transcript released by the White House. Lisa Mascaro, chicagotribune.com, "Trump impeachment: House Judiciary Committee sets opening hearing; transcripts show budget officials’ concerns over hold on Ukraine aid," 27 Nov. 2019 Trump said to Zelenskiy, according to a rough transcript released under pressure by the White House. Darlene Superville, Twin Cities, "Trump knew of whistleblower before releasing Ukraine aid," 27 Nov. 2019 Williams also testified that a rough transcript of Trump's call with Zelensky on July 25, in which Trump explicitly asked Zelensky to have Ukraine open an investigation into Biden, was placed in Pence's briefing materials on the night of the call. Anchorage Daily News, "Sondland says he told Pence that Ukraine military aid appeared conditioned on political investigations," 20 Nov. 2019 The reality star touched on her relationship with her mom at BravoCon over the weekend Braunwyn Windham-Burke and her mother, Dr. Deborah Windham, are going through a rough patch in their relationship. Dave Quinn, PEOPLE.com, "RHOC's Braunwyn Windham-Burke Says She and Her Mother Are 'In a Really Difficult Place'," 19 Nov. 2019 The White House released a rough transcript of the conversation, with portions deleted. Lisa Mascaro And Mary Clare Jalonick, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, "U.S. diplomat testifies in impeachment hearing that President Trump asked for an update on Ukraine probes day after July 25 call," 13 Nov. 2019 The Tina Turner Musical across the rough patches of its clunky book and uneven direction. David Rooney, The Hollywood Reporter, "'Tina: The Tina Turner Musical': Theater Review," 8 Nov. 2019 Michigan overcomes some rough patches during the nascent stages of Howard’s tenure as coach to win enough games to qualify for the NCAA tournament and continue this banner era of Wolverines basketball. Rainer Sabin, Detroit Free Press, "Bold predictions as Michigan basketball tips off the Juwan Howard era," 4 Nov. 2019 This latest rough patch was not Kovač's first in charge of Bayern, as his position actually came under threat in November 2018 after a string of unconvincing results. SI.com, "7 Candidates in the Frame to Replace Niko Kovač as Bayern Munich Manager," 4 Nov. 2019 Recent Examples on the Web: Adverb Shelves above each bed are made from rough-cut and original two-by-fours repurposed when these apartments were remodeled last winter and spring. Dina Mishev, Washington Post, "Missoula," 11 Sep. 2019 Thousands of migrants are sleeping rough on the streets and the parks after trying to cross the border into Croatia but are being pushed back into Bosnia, aid groups say. Washington Post, "Aid groups: Migrant humanitarian crisis looming in Bosnia," 13 June 2019 By answering the conjecture, the coauthors of the new work have placed a rough-cut restriction on the spaces in which higher-rank lattices can act. Quanta Magazine, "A Proof About Where Symmetries Can’t Exist," 23 Oct. 2018 When Trump suggested that police rough up suspects, the crowd—and the uniformed officers sitting behind him on stage—applauded. David A. Graham, The Atlantic, "Trump's Vision of Lawless Order," 28 July 2017 Last night, Morris updated her Instagram story with a close-up shot of the engagement ring—a large, unique rough-cut diamond. Taysha Murtaugh, Country Living, "Maren Morris & Ryan Hurd Are Engaged—and Her Ring Is the Most Unique We've Ever Seen," 10 July 2017 Recent Examples on the Web: Noun Schauffele, who birdied the 18th in regulation to force a playoff, had to lay up from the rough near a bunker, and his 12-foot birdie putt stayed just right of the hole. BostonGlobe.com, "Rory McIlroy thought he did everything he needed to win the HSBC Champions on Sunday, and then Xander Schauffele made him do a little more.," 4 Nov. 2019 Kids can dump their mining rough into a mining sluice outside the cave entrance and discover their treasures. Amy Schwabe, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, "Hunt for rocks and fossils at these 2 Wisconsin destinations," 18 Oct. 2019 Woods flew his tee shot past the green and into a pit of rough, reaching the green in three before a two-putt for double bogey. The Si Staff, SI.com, "2019 U.S. Open Live Blog: Tracking Tiger, Koepka and Round One Leaders at Pebble," 13 June 2019 Drama on 17 as his drive caught the right rough, but McIlroy carved it out onto the green. Rob Hodgetts, CNN, "Emotional Rory McIlroy feels 'love' in dramatic late Open bid," 19 July 2019 Just ahead of him, Koepka only parred the hole after driving the rough, and so Woodland walked to the 15th tee with a two-shot lead cushion. San Diego Union-Tribune, "Woodland’s U.S. Open victory is all about the shot making," 16 June 2019 Thankfully there is one gem in the intergalactic rough, a character that deserves his own spinoff. Scott Craven, Detroit Free Press, "Not even wisecracking alien Pawny can save latest ‘MIB’," 13 June 2019 Thankfully there is one gem in the intergalactic rough, a character that deserves his own spinoff. Scott Craven, Detroit Free Press, "Not even wisecracking alien Pawny can save latest ‘MIB’," 13 June 2019 For four straight days, Stricker made quick work of Warren’s bent-grass fairways and greens while staying far from the fescue rough, grown out to 3½ inches in some places. Mike Berardino, Indianapolis Star, "Steve Stricker and caddie/wife Nicki make U.S. Senior Open a family affair," 30 June 2019 Recent Examples on the Web: Verb Shane Lee was flagged for roughing Bo Nix on a second-down play early in the fourth quarter. Michael Casagrande | Mcasagrande@al.com, al, "Looking at the penalty, discipline issue that cost Alabama in Iron Bowl loss," 1 Dec. 2019 The Cornhuskers got three plays of 14 or more yards and a 15-yard penalty on Zack Baun for roughing the passer and drove 73 yards in just five plays for a 14-10 lead with 9:32 left in the half. Jeff Potrykus, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, "Wisconsin 37, Nebraska 21: Jonathan Taylor surpasses NCAA rushing mark through junior season," 16 Nov. 2019 Others, though, drew Tibesar’s attention, such as personal fouls and a couple roughing-the-passer calls. oregonlive, "Oregon State aiming to make its tackling problems against Arizona a one-week issue," 6 Nov. 2019 David Anenih was called for roughing the passer and Willie Smith III for hands to the face, moving the ball to the UH 15-yard line. Joseph Duarte, Houston Chronicle, "Late UH rally falls short in loss to No. 16 SMU," 24 Oct. 2019 This is a foul for roughing the passer - the defender lands ‘with all or most of the defender’s weight’ on the passer. Ryan Gaydos, Fox News, "Green Bay Packers' Clay Matthews blasts NFL after controversial penalty: 'I think they're getting soft'," 24 Sep. 2018 Lest America miss the hint, Mr Erdogan’s bodyguards roughed up journalists outside the venerable Brookings Institution during the Turkish leader’s last call on Mr Obama, in 2016. The Economist, "The strange love-in between Donald Trump and Recep Tayyip Erdogan," 14 Nov. 2019 Many have, including bands that have roughed up people protesting the government. BostonGlobe.com, "You're using a browser set to private or incognito mode.," 11 Nov. 2019 Many have, including bands that have roughed up people protesting the government. Ernesto Londoño, New York Times, "Bolivian Leader Evo Morales Steps Down," 10 Nov. 2019

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'rough.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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First Known Use of rough

Adjective

before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a

Adverb

14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1

Noun

15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1

Verb

1728, in the meaning defined at sense 1

History and Etymology for rough

Adjective

Middle English, from Old English rūh; akin to Old High German rūh rough, Lithuanian raukas wrinkle

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Time Traveler for rough

Time Traveler

The first known use of rough was before the 12th century

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Statistics for rough

Last Updated

5 Dec 2019

Cite this Entry

“Rough.” The Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster Inc., https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/rougher. Accessed 8 December 2019.

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More Definitions for rough

rough

adjective
How to pronounce rough (audio)

English Language Learners Definition of rough

 (Entry 1 of 4)

: having a surface that is not even
: having or causing sudden, violent movements
somewhat informal : difficult or unpleasant to deal with

rough

adverb

English Language Learners Definition of rough (Entry 2 of 4)

: in a rough way
British : outside and without shelter

rough

noun

English Language Learners Definition of rough (Entry 3 of 4)

golf : an area on a golf course covered with tall grass that makes it difficult to hit the ball
: something (such as a drawing) that is done quickly and is not detailed or finished
informal + old-fashioned : a person who is loud and violent

rough

verb

English Language Learners Definition of rough (Entry 4 of 4)

American football + ice hockey : to hit (a player) very hard in a way that is not allowed by the rules

rough

adjective
\ ˈrəf How to pronounce rough (audio) \
rougher; roughest

Kids Definition of rough

 (Entry 1 of 3)

1 : uneven in surface rough tree bark a rough road
2 : having many bumps and jolts a rough ride
3 : not calm rough seas
4 : being harsh or violent rough treatment
5 : difficult or unpleasant to deal with “You're in for a rough night …”— J. K. Rowling, Chamber of Secrets
6 : coarse or rugged in nature or look a rough face
7 : having a harsh sound a rough voice
8 : not complete or exact a rough estimate a rough draft

Other Words from rough

roughly adverb
roughness noun

rough

noun

Kids Definition of rough (Entry 2 of 3)

1 : uneven ground covered with high grass, brush, and stones
2 : something in a crude or unfinished state It's not a finished drawing, just a rough.

rough

verb
roughed; roughing

Kids Definition of rough (Entry 3 of 3)

1 : to handle violently : beat He was roughed up by bullies.
2 : to make or shape coarsely or unevenly
rough it
: to live without ordinary comforts We spent the summer roughing it in northern Maine.

rough

adjective
\ ˈrəf How to pronounce rough (audio) \

Medical Definition of rough

: having a broken, uneven, or bumpy surface specifically : forming or being rough colonies usually made up of organisms that form chains or filaments and tend to marked decrease in capsule formation and virulence used of dissociated strains of bacteria — compare smooth

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More from Merriam-Webster on rough

Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for rough

Rhyming Dictionary: Words that rhyme with rough

Spanish Central: Translation of rough

Nglish: Translation of rough for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of rough for Arabic Speakers

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