rough

adjective
\ ˈrəf How to pronounce rough (audio) \
rougher; roughest

Definition of rough

 (Entry 1 of 4)

1a : marked by inequalities, ridges, or projections on the surface : coarse
b : covered with or made up of coarse and often shaggy hair rough-coated collie — compare smooth, wirehaired
c(1) : having a broken, uneven, or bumpy surface rough terrain
(2) : difficult to travel through or penetrate : wild into the rough woods— P. B. Shelley
2a : turbulent, tempestuous rough seas
b(1) : characterized by harshness, violence, or force
(2) : presenting a challenge : difficult rough to deal with— R. M. McAlmon
3 : coarse or rugged in character or appearance: such as
a : harsh to the ear
b : crude in style or expression
d : marked by a lack of refinement or grace : uncouth
4a : crude, unfinished rough carpentry
b : executed or ventured hastily, tentatively, or imperfectly a rough draft rough estimate also : approximate a rough idea

rough

adverb

Definition of rough (Entry 2 of 4)

2 British : without usual conveniences especially : without proper shelter become homeless and have to sleep roughLondon Times

rough

noun

Definition of rough (Entry 3 of 4)

1 : uneven ground covered with high grass, brush, and stones specifically : such ground bordering a golf fairway
2 : the rugged or disagreeable side or aspect hiking-camping admirers of nature in the rough— Eleanor Stirling
3a : something in a crude, unfinished, or preliminary state
b : broad outline : general terms the question … has been discussed in roughManchester Guardian Weekly
c : a hasty preliminary drawing or layout
4 : rowdy

rough

verb
roughed; roughing; roughs

Definition of rough (Entry 4 of 4)

transitive verb

2a : to subject to abuse : manhandle, beat usually used with up
b : to subject to unnecessary and intentional violence in a sport a penalty for roughing the passer
c : shell sense 3 used with upwas roughed up for six runs
3 : to calk or otherwise roughen (a horse's shoes) to prevent slipping
4a : to shape, make, or dress in a rough or preliminary way
b : to indicate the chief lines of rough out the structure of a building
rough it
: to live under harsh or primitive conditions

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Other Words from rough

Adjective

roughish \ ˈrə-​fish How to pronounce roughish (audio) \ adjective
roughness \ ˈrəf-​nəs How to pronounce roughness (audio) \ noun

Verb

rougher noun

Synonyms & Antonyms for rough

Synonyms: Adjective

Antonyms: Adjective

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Choose the Right Synonym for rough

Adjective

rough, harsh, uneven, rugged, scabrous mean not smooth or even. rough implies points, bristles, ridges, or projections on the surface. a rough wooden board harsh implies a surface or texture distinctly unpleasant to the touch. a harsh fabric that chafes the skin uneven implies a lack of uniformity in height, breadth, or quality. an old house with uneven floors rugged implies irregularity or roughness of land surface and connotes difficulty of travel. a rugged landscape scabrous implies scaliness or prickliness of surface. a scabrous leaf

synonyms see in addition rude

Examples of rough in a Sentence

Adjective He trimmed the rough edge of the paper. We traveled over rough dirt roads. They hiked through rough terrain. We were a bit shaken from the plane's rough landing. He went through a rough patch after his divorce. They've hit a few rough spots in their marriage. Despite a rough start, the team won more games this season than last. Adverb The engine is running a little rough. Life has been treating her pretty rough. He plays rough with the dog. people living rough on the streets Noun He hit his drive into the rough. He showed me a few roughs of the new building. Verb He was called for roughing the kicker.
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Recent Examples on the Web: Adjective His powers of persuasion were tested during a fierce debate about whether Trump should release the rough transcript of the phone call with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky. Washington Post, "Trump lawyer Pat Cipollone was a camera-shy Washington Everyman — until impeachment made him a star," 30 Jan. 2020 The president's lawyers repeatedly noted that Trump released the rough transcript of the call between Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky and himself on July 25. Mike Brest, Washington Examiner, "CNN's Jeffrey Toobin: 'The president is winning' in impeachment trial," 25 Jan. 2020 Absent that, there will be the television clips and quotes from the rough transcript of his call with Mr. Zelensky and recollections of people like Mr. Sondland. Peter Baker, New York Times, "Now Testifying for the Prosecution: President Trump," 23 Jan. 2020 The current 12th season of the show has been particularly rough for Leakes as lingering conflicts with several cast members have kept her isolated from the rest of the group. Keyaira Boone, Essence, "Nene Leakes Denies She's Leaving 'RHOA' After Wendy Williams Claims She's Out And Dealing With A 'Secret'," 22 Jan. 2020 Schiff did so after the White House released a rough transcript of the call, not before, as Trump states. Calvin Woodward, Fortune, "Fact Checking Trump’s Recent Claims on Iran, Jobs, and the Environment," 13 Jan. 2020 The transmissions, internally referred to as DPS6, are dual-clutch six-speed automatics which use dry clutches and are prone to rough shifting, requiring frequent repairs. Colin Beresford, Car and Driver, "Ford Settling with Focus, Fiesta Owners over Troublesome Dual-Clutch Transmission," 28 Jan. 2020 The US Space Force had a rough launch on the internet The internet has found a new thing to latch onto: President Trump's Space Force. Alex Baker-whitcomb, Wired, "Space Force's Rough Launch, Oversight for Facebook, and More News," 28 Jan. 2020 Each has had a rough run, dealing with emotional and substance issues. cincinnati.com, "Accused podcast, Season 3, Chapter 8: The nuclear wrap-up," 28 Jan. 2020 Recent Examples on the Web: Adverb Shelves above each bed are made from rough-cut and original two-by-fours repurposed when these apartments were remodeled last winter and spring. Dina Mishev, Washington Post, "Missoula," 11 Sep. 2019 Thousands of migrants are sleeping rough on the streets and the parks after trying to cross the border into Croatia but are being pushed back into Bosnia, aid groups say. Washington Post, "Aid groups: Migrant humanitarian crisis looming in Bosnia," 13 June 2019 By answering the conjecture, the coauthors of the new work have placed a rough-cut restriction on the spaces in which higher-rank lattices can act. Quanta Magazine, "A Proof About Where Symmetries Can’t Exist," 23 Oct. 2018 When Trump suggested that police rough up suspects, the crowd—and the uniformed officers sitting behind him on stage—applauded. David A. Graham, The Atlantic, "Trump's Vision of Lawless Order," 28 July 2017 Last night, Morris updated her Instagram story with a close-up shot of the engagement ring—a large, unique rough-cut diamond. Taysha Murtaugh, Country Living, "Maren Morris & Ryan Hurd Are Engaged—and Her Ring Is the Most Unique We've Ever Seen," 10 July 2017 Recent Examples on the Web: Noun Playing the sixth hole, Thomas’ tee shot landed in the right rough, where some tree branches blocked his path to the green. John Davis, azcentral, "Justin Thomas has another close encounter with a tree at the Phoenix Open," 31 Jan. 2020 Schauffele, who birdied the 18th in regulation to force a playoff, had to lay up from the rough near a bunker, and his 12-foot birdie putt stayed just right of the hole. BostonGlobe.com, "Rory McIlroy thought he did everything he needed to win the HSBC Champions on Sunday, and then Xander Schauffele made him do a little more.," 4 Nov. 2019 Kids can dump their mining rough into a mining sluice outside the cave entrance and discover their treasures. Amy Schwabe, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, "Hunt for rocks and fossils at these 2 Wisconsin destinations," 18 Oct. 2019 Woods flew his tee shot past the green and into a pit of rough, reaching the green in three before a two-putt for double bogey. The Si Staff, SI.com, "2019 U.S. Open Live Blog: Tracking Tiger, Koepka and Round One Leaders at Pebble," 13 June 2019 Drama on 17 as his drive caught the right rough, but McIlroy carved it out onto the green. Rob Hodgetts, CNN, "Emotional Rory McIlroy feels 'love' in dramatic late Open bid," 19 July 2019 Just ahead of him, Koepka only parred the hole after driving the rough, and so Woodland walked to the 15th tee with a two-shot lead cushion. San Diego Union-Tribune, "Woodland’s U.S. Open victory is all about the shot making," 16 June 2019 Thankfully there is one gem in the intergalactic rough, a character that deserves his own spinoff. Scott Craven, Detroit Free Press, "Not even wisecracking alien Pawny can save latest ‘MIB’," 13 June 2019 Thankfully there is one gem in the intergalactic rough, a character that deserves his own spinoff. Scott Craven, Detroit Free Press, "Not even wisecracking alien Pawny can save latest ‘MIB’," 13 June 2019 Recent Examples on the Web: Verb Defensive end Aidan Hutchinson, though, was flagged for roughing the passer. Orion Sang, Detroit Free Press, "Michigan football leads Alabama at halftime of Citrus Bowl: Our observations," 1 Jan. 2020 On a first-and-10 play from the Kansas City 27, Crosby was flagged for roughing the passer and got a 15-yard penalty. Jerry Mcdonald, The Mercury News, "Raiders’ Maxx Crosby fined for hit on Chiefs’ Patrick Mahomes," 21 Sep. 2019 After a Colts roughing the passer penalty, the Jaguars get a passing 2-point conversion to Dede Westbrook. Scott Horner, Indianapolis Star, "Game blog: Jaguars blast Colts 38-20 in season finale," 29 Dec. 2019 The score was made possible by a roughing the punter penalty on Chris Olave and Cameron Brown deep in Clemson territory. Stephen Means, cleveland, "Clemson 29, Ohio State 23: 8 plays that defined the Fiesta Bowl," 29 Dec. 2019 Like in the second quarter, Ohio State made a critical error in the third with a roughing the punter penalty, extending a drive that eventually covered 99 yards with Clemson taking its first lead. Jeff Metcalfe, azcentral, "No. 3 Clemson rallies to edge No. 2 Ohio State, advancing to CFP Championship Game," 28 Dec. 2019 Witness Marianne, crouched in the lee of a rock beside the ocean, roughing out a secret sketch of her subject, like a drinker swigging in shame. Anthony Lane, The New Yorker, "The Fanciful Flamboyance of “The Aeronauts”," 29 Nov. 2019 Carl Nassib got around Hubbard to force Mayfield toward the sideline, where he was clocked by Noah Spence (Spence was penalized for roughing on the play). Scott Patsko, cleveland.com, "Did Kareem Hunt have an underwhelming preseason by design? Scott Patsko’s instant takeaways," 23 Aug. 2019 He had just been roughed up for four hits and three runs in the second inning but with the bases loaded again, Bayside couldn’t come up with the big basehit. Robert Avery, Houston Chronicle, "In lights out fashion, Pearland East 10s capture Section 3 championship," 9 July 2019

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'rough.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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First Known Use of rough

Adjective

before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a

Adverb

14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1

Noun

15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1

Verb

1728, in the meaning defined at sense 1

History and Etymology for rough

Adjective

Middle English, from Old English rūh; akin to Old High German rūh rough, Lithuanian raukas wrinkle

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Time Traveler for rough

Time Traveler

The first known use of rough was before the 12th century

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Statistics for rough

Last Updated

14 Feb 2020

Cite this Entry

“Rough.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/rough. Accessed 27 Feb. 2020.

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More Definitions for rough

rough

adjective
How to pronounce rough (audio)

English Language Learners Definition of rough

 (Entry 1 of 4)

: having a surface that is not even
: having or causing sudden, violent movements
somewhat informal : difficult or unpleasant to deal with

rough

adverb

English Language Learners Definition of rough (Entry 2 of 4)

: in a rough way
British : outside and without shelter

rough

noun

English Language Learners Definition of rough (Entry 3 of 4)

golf : an area on a golf course covered with tall grass that makes it difficult to hit the ball
: something (such as a drawing) that is done quickly and is not detailed or finished
informal + old-fashioned : a person who is loud and violent

rough

verb

English Language Learners Definition of rough (Entry 4 of 4)

American football + ice hockey : to hit (a player) very hard in a way that is not allowed by the rules

rough

adjective
\ ˈrəf How to pronounce rough (audio) \
rougher; roughest

Kids Definition of rough

 (Entry 1 of 3)

1 : uneven in surface rough tree bark a rough road
2 : having many bumps and jolts a rough ride
3 : not calm rough seas
4 : being harsh or violent rough treatment
5 : difficult or unpleasant to deal with “You're in for a rough night …”— J. K. Rowling, Chamber of Secrets
6 : coarse or rugged in nature or look a rough face
7 : having a harsh sound a rough voice
8 : not complete or exact a rough estimate a rough draft

Other Words from rough

roughly adverb
roughness noun

rough

noun

Kids Definition of rough (Entry 2 of 3)

1 : uneven ground covered with high grass, brush, and stones
2 : something in a crude or unfinished state It's not a finished drawing, just a rough.

rough

verb
roughed; roughing

Kids Definition of rough (Entry 3 of 3)

1 : to handle violently : beat He was roughed up by bullies.
2 : to make or shape coarsely or unevenly
rough it
: to live without ordinary comforts We spent the summer roughing it in northern Maine.

rough

adjective
\ ˈrəf How to pronounce rough (audio) \

Medical Definition of rough

: having a broken, uneven, or bumpy surface specifically : forming or being rough colonies usually made up of organisms that form chains or filaments and tend to marked decrease in capsule formation and virulence used of dissociated strains of bacteria — compare smooth

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More from Merriam-Webster on rough

Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for rough

Rhyming Dictionary: Words that rhyme with rough

Spanish Central: Translation of rough

Nglish: Translation of rough for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of rough for Arabic Speakers

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