adjective

noun
ad·​jec·​tive | \ ˈa-jik-tiv How to pronounce adjective (audio) also ˈa-jə-tiv \

Definition of adjective

 (Entry 1 of 2)

: a word belonging to one of the major form classes in any of numerous languages and typically serving as a modifier of a noun to denote a quality of the thing named, to indicate its quantity or extent, or to specify a thing as distinct from something else The word red in "the red car" is an adjective.

adjective

adjective

Definition of adjective (Entry 2 of 2)

1 : of, relating to, or functioning as an adjective an adjective clause
2 : not standing by itself : dependent
3 : requiring or employing a mordant adjective dyes
4 : procedural adjective law

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Other Words from adjective

Adjective

adjectively adverb

What is an adjective?

Noun

Adjectives describe or modify—that is, they limit or restrict the meaning of—nouns and pronouns. They may name qualities of all kinds: huge, red, angry, tremendous, unique, rare, etc.

An adjective usually comes right before a noun: "a red dress," "fifteen people." When an adjective follows a linking verb such as be or seem, it is called a predicate adjective: "That building is huge," "The workers seem happy." Most adjectives can be used as predicate adjectives, although some are always used before a noun. Similarly, a few adjectives can only be used as predicate adjectives and are never used before a noun.

Some adjectives describe qualities that can exist in different amounts or degrees. To do this, the adjective will either change in form (usually by adding -er or -est) or will be used with words like more, most, very, slightly, etc.: "the older girls," "the longest day of the year," "a very strong feeling," "more expensive than that one." Other adjectives describe qualities that do not vary—"nuclear energy," "a medical doctor"—and do not change form.

The four demonstrative adjectivesthis, that, these, and those—are identical to the demonstrative pronouns. They are used to distinguish the person or thing being described from others of the same category or class. This and these describe people or things that are nearby, or in the present. That and those are used to describe people or things that are not here, not nearby, or in the past or future. These adjectives, like the definite and indefinite articles (a, an, and the), always come before any other adjectives that modify a noun.

An indefinite adjective describes a whole group or class of people or things, or a person or thing that is not identified or familiar. The most common indefinite adjectives are: all, another, any, both, each, either, enough, every, few, half, least, less, little, many, more, most, much, neither, one (and two, three, etc.), other, several, some, such, whole.

The interrogative adjectives—primarily which, what, and whose—are used to begin questions. They can also be used as interrogative pronouns.

Which horse did you bet on? = Which did you bet on?

What songs did they sing? = What did they sing?

Whose coat is this? = Whose is this?

The possessive adjectivesmy, your, his, her, its, our, their—tell you who has, owns, or has experienced something, as in "I admired her candor, "Our cat is 14 years old," and "They said their trip was wonderful."

Nouns often function like adjectives. When they do, they are called attributive nouns.

When two or more adjectives are used before a noun, they should be put in proper order. Any article (a, an, the), demonstrative adjective (that, these, etc.), indefinite adjective (another, both, etc.), or possessive adjective (her, our, etc.) always comes first. If there is a number, it comes first or second. True adjectives always come before attributive nouns. The ordering of true adjectives will vary, but the following order is the most common: opinion wordsizeageshapecolornationalitymaterial.

Participles are often used like ordinary adjectives. They may come before a noun or after a linking verb. A present participle (an -ing word) describes the person or thing that causes something; for example, a boring conversation is one that bores you. A past participle (usually an -ed word) describes the person or thing who has been affected by something; for example, a bored person is one who has been affected by boredom.

They had just watched an exciting soccer game.

The instructions were confusing.

She's excited about the trip to North Africa.

Several confused students were asking questions about the test.

The lake was frozen.

Examples of adjective in a Sentence

Noun The words blue in “the blue car,” deep in “the water is deep,” and tired in “I'm very tired” are adjectives.
Recent Examples on the Web: Noun There are animal adjectives that do not end in -ine. Mary Norris, The New Yorker, "“A Way with Words” Is “Car Talk” for Lexiphiles," 28 Apr. 2020 Once Washington is out of adjectives and bluster, what’s left? Kevin D. Williamson, National Review, "Unhappy to Be Stuck with 2 Percent Growth," 31 Jan. 2020 Sure, to distance oneself exists, but to then qualify it with an adjective? Ruth Michaelson, Smithsonian Magazine, "How ‘Social Distancing’ Can Get Lost in Translation," 22 Apr. 2020 Many of the same lively adjectives are commonly used to describe both the man and his art: playful, charming, colorful, big, unpretentious, brilliant. Rachel Corbett, The Atlantic, "Art in Motion," 12 Apr. 2020 Indeed, the term plastic as an adjective means to stay flexible and formable, whether in literal plastic or the human brain. Caroline Delbert, Popular Mechanics, "Plastic Can Walk on its Own Now," 5 Dec. 2019 Children can think of adjectives or even an image of who their best self is in the classroom, on the playground or with their siblings, and then parents can remind them of that when needed. Washington Post, "How to manage intense emotions — both your child’s and your own," 23 Oct. 2019 There’s an adjective to describe how great that was. Christine Brennan, USA TODAY, "Opinion: Tom Brady needs to keep his hands off 'Tom Terrific' nickname," 12 Oct. 2017 Use adjectives that are at least three syllables long to degrade any attempt to disagree with you, like outrageous, unreasonable, ludicrous, preposterous and incongruous. Doug Lesmerises, cleveland, "Turn your child into a sports columnist -- kids, send hot takes on the Browns, Buckeyes, Indians and Cavs," 31 Mar. 2020 Recent Examples on the Web: Adjective Often the best strategy here is to think of action verbs, then modify them into adjective form. Peter Jones, USA TODAY, "Use these 8 words to describe yourself during a job interview," 17 Aug. 2017

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'adjective.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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First Known Use of adjective

Noun

14th century, in the meaning defined above

Adjective

15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1

History and Etymology for adjective

Noun

Middle English adjectif, borrowed from Anglo-French & Late Latin; Anglo-French adjectyf, borrowed from Late Latin adjectīvum, from neuter of adjectivus adjective entry 2 (as translation of Greek epítheton)

Adjective

Middle English adjectif, borrowed from Anglo-French & Late Latin; Anglo-French adjectyf, borrowed from Late Latin adjectīvus, from Latin adjectus (past participle of adjicere "to throw at, attach, contribute, add to (in speech or writing)," from ad- ad- + jacere "to throw") + -īvus -ive — more at jet entry 3

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Time Traveler for adjective

Time Traveler

The first known use of adjective was in the 14th century

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Statistics for adjective

Last Updated

8 Jun 2020

Cite this Entry

“Adjective.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/adjective. Accessed 5 Jul. 2020.

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More Definitions for adjective

adjective

noun
How to pronounce adjective (audio)

English Language Learners Definition of adjective

: a word that describes a noun or a pronoun

adjective

noun
ad·​jec·​tive | \ ˈa-jik-tiv How to pronounce adjective (audio) \

Kids Definition of adjective

: a word that says something about a noun or pronoun In the phrases “good people,” “someone good,” “it's good to be here,” and “they seem very good” the word “good” is an adjective.

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More from Merriam-Webster on adjective

Spanish Central: Translation of adjective

Nglish: Translation of adjective for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of adjective for Arabic Speakers

Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about adjective

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