libel

noun
li·​bel | \ ˈlī-bəl How to pronounce libel (audio) \

Definition of libel

 (Entry 1 of 2)

1a : a written statement in which a plaintiff in certain courts sets forth the cause of action or the relief sought
b archaic : a handbill especially attacking or defaming someone
2a : a written or oral defamatory statement or representation that conveys an unjustly unfavorable impression
b(1) : a statement or representation published without just cause and tending to expose another to public contempt
(2) : defamation of a person by written or representational means
(3) : the publication of blasphemous, treasonable, seditious, or obscene writings or pictures
(4) : the act, tort, or crime of publishing such a libel

libel

verb
li·​bel | \ ˈlī-bəl How to pronounce libel (audio) \
libeled or libelled; libeling or libelling\ ˈlī-​b(ə-​)liŋ How to pronounce libelling (audio) \

Definition of libel (Entry 2 of 2)

intransitive verb

: to make libelous statements

transitive verb

: to make or publish a libel against (see libel entry 1)

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Other Words from libel

Verb

libeler \ ˈlī-​b(ə-​)lər How to pronounce libeler (audio) \ noun
libelist \ ˈlī-​bə-​list How to pronounce libelist (audio) \ noun

Examples of libel in a Sentence

Noun

To meet the Supreme Court's definition of libel involving a public figure, a quotation must not only be made up or materially altered. It must also defame the person quoted, and damage his or her reputation or livelihood … — Jane Gross, New York Times, 5 June 1993 It is relevant to note that in 1987 the suit against Ms. Malcolm was dismissed … in a narrow ruling that stated that even if the quotations were "false and mischievous," Ms. Malcolm's alterations did not represent malicious intent and therefore did not constitute libel. — Fred W. Friendly, New York Times Book Review, 25 Feb. 1990 The above is not only a flat lie but a political libel which may possibly damage me. Publish it at your peril … — Bernard Shaw, letter, 16 Sept. 1949 In their tiresome addiction to this use of alleged, the newspapers, though having mainly in mind the danger of libel suits, can urge in further justification the lack of any other single word that exactly expresses their meaning; but the fact that a mud-puddle supplies the shortest route is not a compelling reason for walking through it. — Ambrose Bierce, Write It Right, 1909 He sued the newspaper for libel. The newspaper was found guilty of libel. The newspaper's attorneys argued that the article was not a libel.

Verb

And in Oklahoma last year, lawyers filed a class-action suit against a group supporting tort reform, saying they had libeled trial lawyers. — Judith Miller, New York Times, 11 June 1996 Government officials, he observed, were public servants who remained accountable to the people and therefore could not be libeled for their performance in office. — Leonard W. Levy, Emergence of a Free Press, 1985 The jury found that the article libeled him. the court decided that the newspaper's reportage of the former mayor, while irresponsible, did not constitute an effort to libel him
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Recent Examples on the Web: Noun

However, the article was published by Rappler two years before the new cyber libel laws came into effect in the Philippines. Richard Roth, CNN, "Amal Clooney will represent Philippines journalist Maria Ressa," 8 July 2019 That was retweeted three times and liked nine times — and, of course, ignored by NARAL, which has declined to retract its libel or correct itself. Kevin D. Williamson, National Review, "Among the Chimps," 28 July 2019 Ressa, the editor of influential news site Rappler, was arrested for cyber libel in February but later released on bail. Julia Webster, Time, "Libel Trial Opens Of Maria Ressa, Philippine Journalist Critical of President Duterte," 23 July 2019 Also in February, Thomas took aim at the court’s most significant libel ruling, New York Times vs. Sullivan. Bob Egelko, SFChronicle.com, "Supreme Court Justice Thomas the leading edge of conservative wing," 21 July 2019 They were sued for alleged sedition, inciting to sedition, libel, harboring a criminal, obstruction of justice, a justice department statement said. Jim Gomez, BostonGlobe.com, "Philippine police file sedition case against vice president," 18 July 2019 Academic freedom is not a blanket freedom from libel. Daniel Henninger, WSJ, "Oberlin’s $44 Million Mistake," 26 June 2019 Allegations in the lawsuit include libel, slander, invasion of privacy and intentional infliction of emotional distress and seek double or triple damages on claims the plaintiffs violated California labor and human trafficking laws. Alex Johnson, NBC News, "Ex-Scientology member sues church and its leader alleging abuse, human trafficking," 20 June 2019 James then had the bishops arrested and charged with seditious libel. Declan Leary, National Review, "Conservatives Should Not Celebrate Religious Tyranny and Coercion," 19 July 2019

Recent Examples on the Web: Verb

Instead, the jury unanimously determined that Oberlin College libeled the Gibsons. Brian Pascus, CBS News, "Oberlin College president Carmen Twillie Ambar on the $44 million ruling against the school," 27 June 2019 According to the Chronicle-Telegram, the court found that the college had libeled the bakery and its owners, in addition to inflicting emotional distress on the owners. Washington Post, "Protests at Oberlin labeled a bakery racist. Now, the college will pay $11 million for libel.," 10 June 2019 By Holly Yan and Hollie Silverman | CNN An Ohio jury has ordered Oberlin College to pay $11 million to a bakery which said it was libeled and wrongfully accused of racially profiling students. Cnn.com Wire Service, The Mercury News, "Ohio bakery awarded $11 million in libel lawsuit against Oberlin College over alleged racial profiling," 10 June 2019 Actor James Woods thinks the trooper should sue anyone who libeled him while perpetuating the lie and media analyst Mark Dice agrees. Brian Flood, Fox News, "Shaun King slammed for pushing woman's now-discredited claim trooper sexually assaulted her," 25 May 2018 The virtues of a free press come under attack in another scene, in which a woman dumps a bucket of excrement over the head of a local official, claiming that she has been libeled by a local newspaper. Justin Chang, latimes.com, "Russian drama takes the stage at Cannes in the sweet 'Leto' and the scathing 'Donbass'," 11 May 2018 The two ultimately went to trial because Irving felt libeled that Lipstadt called him a Holocaust denier in her book. Jennifer Wright, Harper's BAZAAR, "Women Don't Owe Men a Debate About Feminism," 20 Mar. 2018 The attorney said the website libels Sibley, interferes with the recruitment of businesses and new residents, and negatively affects property rights. USA TODAY, "Iowa man who complained about town’s ‘stench’ sues after city officials threaten to sue him," 8 Mar. 2018 Just as the First Amendment’s protects free speech, but doesn’t give a license to people to libel others. Andrés Oppenheimer, miamiherald, "Kudos to Gables’ Mayor Valdes-Fauli for proposing a ban on semi-automatic weapons | Miami Herald," 26 Feb. 2018

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'libel.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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First Known Use of libel

Noun

14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a

Verb

1588, in the meaning defined at intransitive sense

History and Etymology for libel

Noun and Verb

Middle English, written declaration, from Anglo-French, from Latin libellus, diminutive of liber book

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More Definitions for libel

libel

noun

English Language Learners Definition of libel

 (Entry 1 of 2)

: the act of publishing a false statement that causes people to have a bad opinion of someone

libel

verb

English Language Learners Definition of libel (Entry 2 of 2)

: to write and publish a false statement that causes people to have a bad opinion of (someone)

libel

noun
li·​bel | \ ˈlī-bəl How to pronounce libel (audio) \

Kids Definition of libel

 (Entry 1 of 2)

: the publication of a false statement that hurts a person's reputation

libel

verb
libeled or libelled; libeling or libelling

Kids Definition of libel (Entry 2 of 2)

: to hurt a person's reputation by publishing a false statement

Other Words from libel

libeler or libeller noun

libel

noun
li·​bel | \ ˈlī-bəl How to pronounce libel (audio) \

Legal Definition of libel

 (Entry 1 of 2)

1 : complaint sense 1 used especially in admiralty and divorce cases
2a : a defamatory statement or representation especially in the form of written or printed words specifically : a false published statement that injures an individual's reputation (as in business) or otherwise exposes him or her to public contempt
b : the publication of such a libel
c : the crime or tort of publishing a libel — see also single publication rule, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan — compare defamation, slander

Note: Although libel is defined under state case law or statute, the U.S. Supreme Court has enumerated some First Amendment protections that apply to matters of public concern. In New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, the Court held that in order to recover damages a public person (as a celebrity or politician) who alleges libel (as by a newspaper) has to prove that “the statement was made with ‘actual malice’ — that is, with knowledge that it was false or with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not” in order to recover damages. The Court has also held that the states cannot allow a private person to recover damages for libel against a media defendant without a showing of fault (as negligence) on the defendant's part. These protections do not apply to matters that are not of public concern (as an individual's credit report) and that are not published by a member of the mass media. A libel plaintiff must generally establish that the alleged libel refers to him or her specifically, that it was published to others, and that some injury (as to reputation) occurred that gives him or her a right to recover damages (as actual, general, presumed, or special damages). The defendant may plead and establish the truth of the statements as a defense. Criminal libel may have additional elements, as in tending to provoke a breach of peace or in blackening the memory of someone who is dead, and may not have to be published to someone other than the person libeled.

libeled also libelled; libeling also libelling

Legal Definition of libel (Entry 2 of 2)

1 : to make or publish a libel against : to hurt the reputation of by libel respondent's complaint alleged that he had been libeled by statements in a full-page advertisementNew York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964)
2 : to proceed against in law by filing a libel (as against a ship or goods) several French ships were libeled in Boston— J. K. Owens

History and Etymology for libel

Noun

Anglo-French, from Latin libellus, diminutive of liber book

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More from Merriam-Webster on libel

Rhyming Dictionary: Words that rhyme with libel

Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for libel

Spanish Central: Translation of libel

Nglish: Translation of libel for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of libel for Arabic Speakers

Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about libel

Comments on libel

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