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The Nobel Prize for chemistry was shared by three scientists for their work on DNA repair, including the discovery of how cells correct mistakes in DNA replication during cell division, a process called mismatch repair. Knowing how these cells replicate (or produce exact copies—replicas—of itself) could lead to breakthroughs in cancer treatments.
Replication means “the action or process of reproducing or duplicating.” In chemistry, it refers specifically to the capacity of molecules to make precise copies of themselves.
The Latin root of replication is the verb that meant “to fold back,” and came to mean “to reply” or “to repeat,” which is where the English word got its current meaning.