socialism

noun
so·​cial·​ism | \ ˈsō-shə-ˌli-zəm How to pronounce socialism (audio) \

Definition of socialism

1 : any of various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods
2a : a system of society or group living in which there is no private property
b : a system or condition of society in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state
3 : a stage of society in Marxist theory transitional between capitalism and communism and distinguished by unequal distribution of goods and pay according to work done

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Socialism vs. Social Democracy: Usage Guide

In the many years since socialism entered English around 1830, it has acquired several different meanings. It refers to a system of social organization in which private property and the distribution of income are subject to social control, but the conception of that control has varied, and the term has been interpreted in widely diverging ways, ranging from statist to libertarian, from Marxist to liberal. In the modern era, "pure" socialism has been seen only rarely and usually briefly in a few Communist regimes. Far more common are systems of social democracy, now often referred to as democratic socialism, in which extensive state regulation, with limited state ownership, has been employed by democratically elected governments (as in Sweden and Denmark) in the belief that it produces a fair distribution of income without impairing economic growth.

Communism, Socialism, Capitalism, and Democracy

Communism, socialism, capitalism, and democracy are all among our top all-time lookups, and user comments suggest that this is because they are complex, abstract terms often used in opaque ways. They're frequently compared and contrasted, with communism sometimes equated with socialism, and democracy and capitalism frequently linked.

Part of the confusion stems from the fact that the word communism has been applied to varying political systems over time. When it was first used in English prose in the mid-19th century, communism referred to an economic and political theory that advocated the elimination of private property and the common sharing of all resources among a group of people; in this use, it was often used interchangeably with the word socialism by 19th-century writers.

The differences between communism and socialism are still debated, but generally English speakers use communism to talk about the political and economic ideologies that find their origin in Karl Marx’s theory of revolutionary socialism, which advocates a proletariat overthrow of capitalist structures within a society; societal and communal ownership and governance of the means of production; and the eventual establishment of a classless society. The most well-known expression of Marx’s theories is the 20th-century Bolshevism of the U.S.S.R., in which the state, through a single authoritarian party, controlled a society’s economic and social activities with the goal of realizing Marx’s theories. Socialism, meanwhile, is most often used in modern English to refer to a system of social organization in which private property and the distribution of income are subject to social control. (The term is also often used in the phrase democratic socialism, which is discussed here.)

Communism and socialism are both frequently contrasted with capitalism and democracy, though these can be false equivalencies depending on the usage. Capitalism refers to an economic system in which a society’s means of production are held by private individuals or organizations, not the government, and where products, prices, and the distribution of goods are determined mainly by competition in a free market. As an economic system, it can be contrasted with the economic system of communism, though as we have noted, the word communism is used of both political and economic systems. Democracy refers not to an economic system but to a system of government in which supreme power is vested in the people and exercised through a system of direct or indirect representation which is decided through periodic free elections. (For discussion about whether the United States is accurately described as a democracy or as a republic, see the article here.)

Readers should consult the individual entries for a full treatment of the various ways in which each of these four words is used.

Examples of socialism in a Sentence

She is quite right, for example, to stress that Thatcher's crusade against socialism was not merely about economic efficiency and prosperity but that above all, "it was that socialism itself—in all its incarnations, wherever and however it was applied—was morally corrupting." — Stephen Pollard, New York Times Book Review, 18 Jan. 2009 Lenin's great genius, of course, was for ideology, which was redefined all too often to support the tactical requirements of the moment. But owing to his fanatical conviction of his own righteousness, especially where socialism was concerned, and also to the Promethean force of his will, his pronouncements were enshrined by his followers as universal truths. — Michael Scammell, New Republic, 20 Dec. 1999
Recent Examples on the Web Our biggest threat is not socialism, but elevation of libertarian capitalism to a moral rather than an economic system. Arkansas Online, 18 June 2021 India was in the throes of economic liberalization after decades of socialism. Karan Mahajan, The New York Review of Books, 15 June 2021 The guide talks about the Panthers choosing a framework of socialism to fight for liberation as opposed to capitalism. Malaika Jabali, Essence, 3 May 2021 According to the analysis, a six-month deep dive into the messaging in various 2020 contests around the country, the socialism attack was the one that stung the most. Chris Cillizza, CNN, 7 June 2021 Communism always fails and socialism equals slavery. Bill Bowden, Arkansas Online, 1 June 2021 Some Democrats are wary that Republicans will target them in the 2022 midterm elections by equating universal healthcare with socialism. Stephanie Armour, WSJ, 22 May 2021 The gestalt of Latest Music Project, Volume 1 is to sing against the global push toward socialism. Armond White, National Review, 19 May 2021 Trump’s success in winning over Cuban American and Venezuelan American voters in Florida with his claims that Democrats would bring Venezuelan-style socialism to America. Noah Bierman, Los Angeles Times, 26 May 2021

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'socialism.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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First Known Use of socialism

1833, in the meaning defined at sense 1

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Learn More About socialism

Time Traveler for socialism

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The first known use of socialism was in 1833

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Statistics for socialism

Last Updated

22 Jun 2021

Cite this Entry

“Socialism.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/socialism. Accessed 23 Jun. 2021.

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More Definitions for socialism

socialism

noun

English Language Learners Definition of socialism

: a way of organizing a society in which major industries are owned and controlled by the government rather than by individual people and companies

socialism

noun
so·​cial·​ism | \ ˈsō-shə-ˌli-zəm How to pronounce socialism (audio) \

Kids Definition of socialism

: a social system or theory in which the government owns and controls the means of production (as factories) and distribution of goods

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