irony

noun
iro·​ny | \ˈī-rə-nē also ˈī(-ə)r-nē \
plural ironies

Definition of irony 

1a : the use of words to express something other than and especially the opposite of the literal meaning

b : a usually humorous or sardonic literary style or form characterized by irony

c : an ironic expression or utterance

2a(1) : incongruity between the actual result of a sequence of events and the normal or expected result

(2) : an event or result marked by such incongruity

b : incongruity between a situation developed in a drama and the accompanying words or actions that is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play

called also dramatic irony, tragic irony

3 : a pretense of ignorance and of willingness to learn from another assumed in order to make the other's false conceptions conspicuous by adroit questioning

called also Socratic irony

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Choose the Right Synonym for irony

wit, humor, irony, sarcasm, satire, repartee mean a mode of expression intended to arouse amusement. wit suggests the power to evoke laughter by remarks showing verbal felicity or ingenuity and swift perception especially of the incongruous. a playful wit humor implies an ability to perceive the ludicrous, the comical, and the absurd in human life and to express these usually without bitterness. a sense of humor irony applies to a manner of expression in which the intended meaning is the opposite of what is seemingly expressed. the irony of the title sarcasm applies to expression frequently in the form of irony that is intended to cut or wound. given to heartless sarcasm satire applies to writing that exposes or ridicules conduct, doctrines, or institutions either by direct criticism or more often through irony, parody, or caricature. a satire on the Congress repartee implies the power of answering quickly, pointedly, or wittily. a dinner guest noted for repartee

What's irony?

Considerable thought is given to what events constitute “true” irony, and the dictionary is often called upon to supply an answer. Here are the facts about how the word irony is used.

Irony has two formal uses that are not as common in general prose as its more casual uses. One refers to Socratic irony—a method of revealing an opponent’s ignorance by pretending to be ignorant yourself and asking probing questions. The other refers to dramatic irony or tragic irony—an incongruity between the situation in a drama and the words used by the characters that only the audience can see. Socratic irony is a tool used in debating; dramatic irony is what happens when the audience realizes that Romeo and Juliet’s plans will go awry.

The third, and debated, use of irony regards what’s called situational irony. Situational irony involves a striking reversal of what is expected or intended: a person sidesteps a pothole to avoid injury and in doing so steps into another pothole and injures themselves. Critics claim the word irony and ironic as they are generally used (as in, “Isn’t it ironic that you called just as I was planning to call you?”) can only apply to situational irony, and uses like the one above are more properly called coincidence.

The historical record shows that irony and ironic have been used imprecisely for almost 100 years at least, and often to refer to coincidence. This 1939 quote from F. Scott Fitzgerald is typical: "It is an ironic thought that the last picture job I took—against my better judgment—yielded me five thousand dollars five hundred and cost over four thousand in medical attention." Is this true situational irony? It’s debatable.

The word irony has come to be applied to events that are merely curious or coincidental, and while some feel this is an incorrect use of the word, it is merely a new one.

Examples of irony in a Sentence

The great irony of human intelligence is that the only species on Earth capable of reason, complex-problem solving, long-term planning and consciousness understands so little about the organ that makes it all possible—the brain. — Amanda Bower, Time, 20 Aug. 2001 The great irony of anthracite is that, tough as it is to light, once you get it lit it's nearly impossible to put out. — Bill Bryson, A Walk in the Woods, 1999 And the irony is obvious: those who once had been the victims of separatism, who had sacrificed so dearly to overcome their being at the margins, would later create an ethos of their own separatism. — Shelby Steele, Harper's, July 1992 a writer known for her clever use of irony “What a beautiful view,” he said, his voice dripping with irony, as he looked out the window at the alley. She described her vacation with heavy irony as “an educational experience.” It was a tragic irony that he made himself sick by worrying so much about his health. That's just one of life's little ironies. The irony of the situation was apparent to everyone. He has a strong sense of irony.
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Recent Examples on the Web

These conversations exposed an irony: No cabinet member has been subjected to more sustained abuse from the president, yet arguably not one has done as much to advance Mr. Trump’s agenda. Judith Miller, WSJ, "Jeff Sessions’s Exit Interview," 8 Nov. 2018 Yes, and that’s one of the most poignant and painful ironies: that Madison, a wonderful founder, was a really terrible war president. Alex Ward, Vox, "This historian spent 10 years researching wartime presidents. Trump scares him the most.," 5 Nov. 2018 Split into two sections, the first will address the origins of camp, and the second will examine how contemporary designers use this irony and exaggeration in their collections. Lucy Wood, Marie Claire, "Lady Gaga Will Host Next Year's Met Gala With Harry Styles and Serena Williams," 10 Oct. 2018 And that’s what irony is built on, that’s what all of these things are built on. Eric Johnson, Recode, "‘Sorry to Bother You’ director Boots Riley suspects social media platforms are hiding politics they don’t like," 8 Oct. 2018 There could be a problem, though, if Kim worries about irony. Kim Tong-hyung, Fox News, "A Kim Jong Un visit to Seoul? It would be surreal challenge," 20 Sep. 2018 One of the great ironies of the Affordable Care Act is that progressives wanted to stick it to the insurers and instead have enriched them with new business. The Editorial Board, WSJ, "The Health Insurers Squawk," 10 July 2018 Have you ever been struck by the irony of exhibiting musical instruments — renowned for their singular sounds — in glass display cases? Meilan Solly, Smithsonian, "How to Hear the Met’s Historic Instruments’ Singular Sounds," 15 June 2018 The British remain broadly supportive of the monarchy, albeit with a sense of mild irony about the pomp and pageantry that accompanies it, though most have deep respect for Queen Elizabeth after her 66 years of service as head of state. Anchorage Daily News, "In a union of tradition and modernity, Meghan Markle marries Prince Harry," 19 May 2018

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'irony.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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First Known Use of irony

1502, in the meaning defined at sense 3

History and Etymology for irony

Latin ironia, from Greek eirōnia, from eirōn dissembler

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More Definitions for irony

irony

noun

English Language Learners Definition of irony

: the use of words that mean the opposite of what you really think especially in order to be funny

: a situation that is strange or funny because things happen in a way that seems to be the opposite of what you expected

irony

noun
iro·​ny | \ˈī-rə-nē \
plural ironies

Kids Definition of irony

1 : the use of words that mean the opposite of what is really meant

2 : a result opposite to what was expected

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More from Merriam-Webster on irony

Spanish Central: Translation of irony

Nglish: Translation of irony for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of irony for Arabic Speakers

Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about irony

Comments on irony

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