: incongruity between the actual result of a sequence of events and the normal or expected result
: an event or result marked by such incongruity
: incongruity between a situation developed in a drama and the accompanying words or actions that is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play
called alsodramatic irony
: a pretense of ignorance and of willingness to learn from another assumed in order to make the other's false conceptions conspicuous by adroit questioning
called alsoSocratic irony
Did you know?
Considerable thought is given to what events constitute “true” irony, and the dictionary is often called upon to supply an answer. Here are the facts about how the word irony is used.
Irony has two formal uses that are not as common in general prose as its more casual uses. One refers to Socratic irony—a method of revealing an opponent’s ignorance by pretending to be ignorant yourself and asking probing questions. The other refers to dramatic irony or tragic irony—an incongruity between the situation in a drama and the words used by the characters that only the audience can see. Socratic irony is a tool used in debating; dramatic irony is what happens when the audience realizes that Romeo and Juliet’s plans will go awry.
The third, and debated, use of irony regards what’s called situational irony. Situational irony involves a striking reversal of what is expected or intended: a person sidesteps a pothole to avoid injury and in doing so steps into another pothole and injures themselves. Critics claim the words irony and ironic as they are used in cases lacking a striking reversal, such as “Isn’t it ironic that you called just as I was planning to call you?,” are more properly called coincidence.
The historical record shows that irony and ironic have been used imprecisely for almost 100 years at least, and often to refer to coincidence. This 1939 quote from F. Scott Fitzgerald is typical: "It is an ironic thought that the last picture job I took—against my better judgment—yielded me five thousand dollars five hundred and cost over four thousand in medical attention." Is this true situational irony? It’s debatable.
The word irony has come to be applied to events that are merely curious or coincidental, and while some feel this is an incorrect use of the word, it is merely a new one.
wit suggests the power to evoke laughter by remarks showing verbal felicity or ingenuity and swift perception especially of the incongruous.
a playful wit
humor implies an ability to perceive the ludicrous, the comical, and the absurd in human life and to express these usually without bitterness.
a sense of humor
irony applies to a manner of expression in which the intended meaning is the opposite of what is seemingly expressed.
the irony of the title
sarcasm applies to expression frequently in the form of irony that is intended to cut or wound.
given to heartless sarcasm
satire applies to writing that exposes or ridicules conduct, doctrines, or institutions either by direct criticism or more often through irony, parody, or caricature.
a satire on the Congress
repartee implies the power of answering quickly, pointedly, or wittily.
a dinner guest noted for repartee
Examples of irony in a Sentence
The great irony of human intelligence is that the only species on Earth capable of reason, complex-problem solving, long-term planning and consciousness understands so little about the organ that makes it all possible—the brain.—Amanda Bower, Time, 20 Aug. 2001The great irony of anthracite is that, tough as it is to light, once you get it lit it's nearly impossible to put out.—Bill Bryson, A Walk in the Woods, 1999And the irony is obvious: those who once had been the victims of separatism, who had sacrificed so dearly to overcome their being at the margins, would later create an ethos of their own separatism.—Shelby Steele, Harper's, July 1992
a writer known for her clever use of irony
“What a beautiful view,” he said, his voice dripping with irony, as he looked out the window at the alley.
She described her vacation with heavy irony as “an educational experience.”
It was a tragic irony that he made himself sick by worrying so much about his health.
That's just one of life's little ironies.
The irony of the situation was apparent to everyone.
He has a strong sense of irony. See More
Recent Examples on the WebThat the building’s birthright visitors hail from both Russia and Ukraine hints at a knowing irony, albeit one the movie quickly moves on from, rather than folding into its political purview.—Siddhant Adlakha, Variety, 20 Feb. 2024 The irony of the Athletics not being among the clubs to show interest is that a talent like Semerano is exactly the type that Billy Beane, who drafted and signed the righty in 2004, would pursue.—Danny Emerman, The Mercury News, 17 Feb. 2024 Navalny’s public voice was full of irony without being cynical.—Masha Gessen, The New Yorker, 17 Feb. 2024 In this twist of irony, the decentralized financial movement landed ended up with central actors like exchanges operating with impunity, under the ignorance of the consumer marketplace.—Korok Ray, Forbes, 15 Feb. 2024 Opponents pushed back against the bill, with some pointing to the irony of instructing on communism when Florida has passed book bans and other restrictions on teaching students about slavery and African American studies.—Emi Tuyetnhi Tran, NBC News, 15 Feb. 2024 Clearly, though much has changed in the last decade, Stewart’s sense of irony remains intact.—Meredith Blake, Los Angeles Times, 12 Feb. 2024 Hegarty asks Lenker at one point, reveling in his little moment of irony.—Margaret Lyons, New York Times, 8 Feb. 2024 And in a curious irony, the old-school banking system might offer clues.—Erika Page, The Christian Science Monitor, 1 Feb. 2024 See More
These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'irony.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.
Latin ironia, from Greek eirōnia, from eirōn dissembler