Promises, Promises: the History of affidavit, affiance, & fiancé
Affidavit refers to a written promise, and its Latin roots connect it to another kind of promise in English. It comes from a past tense form of the Latin verb affidare, meaning “to pledge”; in Latin, affidavit translates to “he or she has made a pledge.”
Affidare is also the root of affiance, an archaic English noun meaning “trust, faith, confidence,” “marriage contract or promise,” or a meaning that has completely fallen from use, “close or intimate relationship.” More familiar to modern English speakers is the verb affiance, meaning “to promise in marriage” or “to betroth.” It usually appears as a fancy-sounding participial adjective:
I like to give affianced friends a copy of Rebecca Mead’s book “One Perfect Day,” which exposes the ridiculous wedding industry.
—Mollie Hemingway, The Federalist, 7 October 2014
Affiance came through French to English in the 14th century, and, nearly 500 years later, the related French words fiancé and fiancée were added to English. Etymologically speaking, a fiancé or fiancée is a “promised one.”
Origin and Etymology of affiance
Middle English, from Anglo-French, from affier to pledge, trust, from Medieval Latin affidare to pledge, from Latin ad- + Vulgar Latin *fidare to trust — more at fiancé
First Known Use: 14th century
Definition of affiance
: to solemnly promise (oneself or another) in marriage : betroth
First Known Use of affiance
Learn More about affiance
Britannica English: Translation of affiance for Arabic speakers
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