, Jean–Martin (1825–1893)
French neurologist. One of the fathers of modern neurology, Charcot created the greatest neurological clinic of his time. An eminent clinician and pathologist as well as a neurologist, he practiced the method which correlates the moribund patient's symptoms with the lesions discovered during the autopsy. He was the first to describe the disintegration of ligaments and joint surfaces, the condition now known as Charcot joint, caused by tabes dorsalis. He did pioneering work on the determination of the brain centers responsible for specific nervous functions. He demonstrated the clear relationship between psychology and physiology, and his work on hysteria and hypnosis stimulated Sigmund Freud, one of his students, to pursue the psychological origins of neurosis.
Tooth, Howard Henry (1856–1925),
British physician. Tooth enjoyed a varied career as a consulting physician to a British hospital for paralyzed and epileptic patients, as an examiner in medicine at Cambridge and Durham universities, and as physician to British troops in Malta. In 1886 he published a description of a disease marked by progressive muscular atrophy. In that same year an independent description of the disease was published jointly by Jean-Martin Charcot and Pierre Marie.