orthogonal

adjective or·thog·o·nal \ ȯr-ˈthä-gə-nᵊl \
Updated on: 15 Nov 2017

Definition of orthogonal

1 a : intersecting or lying at right angles
  • In orthogonal cutting, the cutting edge is perpendicular to the direction of tool travel.
b : having perpendicular slopes or tangents at the point of intersection
  • orthogonal curves
2 : having a sum of products or an integral (see 1integral 1b) that is zero or sometimes one under specified conditions: such as
a of real-valued functions : having the integral of the product of each pair of functions over a specific interval equal to zero
b of vectors : having the scalar product equal to zero
c of a square matrix : having the sum of products of corresponding elements in any two rows or any two columns equal to one if the rows or columns are the same and equal to zero otherwise : having a transpose with which the product equals the identity matrix
3 of a linear transformation : having a matrix (see matrix 5a) that is orthogonal : preserving length and distance
4 : composed of mutually orthogonal elements
  • an orthogonal basis of a vector space
5 : statistically independent
  • mental ability may be classified into several orthogonal … factors
  • —O. D. Duncan
6 : orthographic 1
  • orthogonal projection

orthogonality

play \ȯr-ˌthä-gə-ˈna-lə-tē\ noun

orthogonally

play \ȯr-ˈthä-gə-nᵊl-ē\ adverb

Recent Examples of orthogonal from the Web

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Origin and Etymology of orthogonal

Middle French, from Latin orthogonius, from Greek orthogōnios, from orth- + gōnia angle — more at -gon

Other Mathematics and Statistics Terms


Medical Dictionary

orthogonal

adjective or·thog·o·nal \ ȯr-ˈthäg-ən-ᵊl \

medical Definition of orthogonal

1 a : lying or intersecting at right angles
b : being, using, or made with three ECG leads whose axes are perpendicular to each other and to the frontal, horizontal, and sagittal axes of the body
  • the three orthogonal leads were recorded simultaneously on magnetic tape
  • —Massoud Nemati et al
2 : statistically independent
  • mental ability may be classified into several orthogonal…factors
  • —O. D. Duncan

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