en·​cum·​ber | \ in-ˈkəm-bər How to pronounce encumber (audio) \
encumbered; encumbering\ in-​ˈkəm-​b(ə-​)riŋ How to pronounce encumbering (audio) \

Definition of encumber

transitive verb

1 : weigh down, burden tourists encumbered by heavy luggage
2 : to impede or hamper the function or activity of : hinder negotiations encumbered by a lack of trust
3 : to burden with a legal claim (such as a mortgage) encumber an estate

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Encumber Has French Roots

In Old French, the noun "combre" meant a defensive obstacle formed by felled trees with sharpened branches facing the enemy. Later, in Middle French, "combre" referred to a barrier, similar to a dam or weir, constructed in the bed of a river to hold back fish or protect the banks. That notion of holding back is what informs our verb "encumber," formed by combining en- and combre. One can be physically encumbered (as by a heavy load or severe weather), or figuratively (as by bureaucratic restrictions). "Combre" also gives us the adjectives "cumbersome" and "cumbrous," both meaning "awkward or difficult to handle."

Examples of encumber in a Sentence

These rules will only encumber the people we're trying to help. Lack of funding has encumbered the project.

Recent Examples on the Web

Laptops and tablets may also be encumbered with the 25% import levy. Mark Gurman, Fortune, "Trade War Be Damned, Apple Is Moving Its Mac Pro Production to China," 28 June 2019 Despite their proximity to each other, Artena is a much sleepier, old-world village, not encumbered by Rome’s foot traffic or consumerism. Marlo Safi, National Review, "Can a Small Italian Village Point the Way to More Livable Modern Cities?," 16 June 2019 In effect, Fitzgerald proved that a great artist need not be encumbered by the physical limitations of age, her creative spirit enabling her to keep listeners engaged by inventing sounds never heard from her before. Howard Reich, chicagotribune.com, "As Tony Bennett approaches 93, let's hear it for the elders," 13 June 2019 The city also has $2 million not encumbered in the 2019 budget leftover from the sale of the former Fox Valley Golf Course, which could be put toward any of the incentive payments. Steve Lord, Aurora Beacon-News, "City Council OKs incentive to bring restaurant to Aurora," 3 June 2019 Most obsessives are encumbered by their affliction. John Anderson, WSJ, "The Heights of Obsession," 22 Feb. 2019 Many recipients are employed but encumbered by high housing costs, according to executives from food banks in states such as California and Texas. Scott Calvert, WSJ, "Food Banks Reap Unexpected Bounty From Trade Disputes," 5 Oct. 2018 Sounds of shouting and struggle, then down the back staircase went the whooping gang encumbered by flailing, crew-cutted, unclean Bill Elder. Michael Lindsay-hogg, Town & Country, "Brando in a Blue Blazer," 22 Aug. 2013 Hensley ran off at record-breaking speed for a man encumbered with a large bellows instrument. Andrew Hamlin, sandiegouniontribune.com, "San Diego's Matt Hensley on the accordion and how he ended up with Flogging Molly," 8 Mar. 2018

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'encumber.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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First Known Use of encumber

14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1

History and Etymology for encumber

Middle English encombren, from Anglo-French encumbrer, from en- + Middle French combre dam, weir

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Statistics for encumber

Last Updated

15 Jul 2019

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Time Traveler for encumber

The first known use of encumber was in the 14th century

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More Definitions for encumber



English Language Learners Definition of encumber

somewhat formal
: to make (someone or something) hold or carry something heavy
: to cause problems or difficulties for (someone or something)


en·​cum·​ber | \ in-ˈkəm-bər How to pronounce encumber (audio) \
encumbered; encumbering

Kids Definition of encumber

1 : to weigh down : burden Their heavy coats encumbered the children.
2 : to cause problems or delays for : hinder Bad weather encumbered the building project.


transitive verb
variants: also incumber \ in-​ˈkəm-​bər \
encumbered; encumbering

Legal Definition of encumber

: to burden with a claim (as a mortgage or lien) encumbered the land with a mineral lease

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More from Merriam-Webster on encumber

Rhyming Dictionary: Words that rhyme with encumber

Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for encumber

Spanish Central: Translation of encumber

Nglish: Translation of encumber for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of encumber for Arabic Speakers

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