Medical Definition of thyroid artery
: either of two arteries supplying the thyroid gland and nearby structures at the front of the neck:
a : one that branches from the external carotid artery or sometimes from the common carotid artery at the level of the thyrohyal of the hyoid bone and that gives off branches to nearby muscles and to the thyroid gland
— called also superior thyroid artery
b : one that branches from the thyrocervical trunk and that divides to form branches supplying the inferior portion of the thyroid gland and anastomosing with the superior thyroid artery or with a corresponding branch from the opposite side
— called also inferior thyroid artery
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