Meckel, Johann Friedrich, the Younger (1781–1833),
German anatomist. One of the greatest anatomists of his time, Meckel, grandson of J. F. Meckel the Elder, made major contributions to comparative and pathological anatomy. Another major area of research for him was embryology. He presented the first detailed analysis of congenital malformations. From 1817 to 1826 he published the first systematic work on human abnormalities in general. A description of Meckel's cartilage was part of an 1805 treatise on comparative and human anatomy. Meckel's diverticulum was described in an 1809 article devoted to the subject.
Gruber, Georg Benno Otto (1884–1977),
German pathologist. A professor of medicine at Innsbruck and then at Göttingen, Gruber specialized in the study of deformities. Also known as a historian of medicine, he published works on the history of pathological anatomy and teratology. He also published studies on the concept of illness and on such specific diseases as polyarteritis nodosa.