Leishman, Sir William Boog (1865–1926),
British bacteriologist. Leishman is famous for his work on kala-azar and antityphoid inoculation. His researches into tropical diseases began when he was with the British Army Medical Service in India. In 1900 he detected the parasite that causes kala-azar. His discovery was confirmed three years later by Charles Donovan. In that year, 1903, Sir Ronald Ross introduced the term leishmania. Leishman continued to work on kala-azar and other tropical diseases and by 1913 had perfected the protective vaccine against typhoid fever. During World War I he concentrated on the diseases resulting from trench warfare. He also spent much time researching the parasite of tick fever.
Donovan, Charles (1863–1951),
British surgeon. A surgeon in the Indian Medical Service, Donovan made significant contributions to tropical medicine as a result of his service in India. He is known mainly for his discovery of the causative organism of kala-azar. It was first discovered in 1900 by Sir William Leishman, who tentatively identified it as a trypanosome in 1903. In the same year Donovan independently discovered the same organism. In 1905 he discovered the Donovan body, the causative agent of granuloma inguinale.