Halsted, William Stewart (1852–1922),
American surgeon. Halsted served for many years as professor of surgery and surgeon-in-chief at Johns Hopkins Medical School and Hospital. Renowned as a surgeon and clinical teacher, he is credited with pioneering work in physiology and pathology and with innovative surgical techniques. He introduced the wearing of rubber gloves for surgical operations, the use of cocaine for local anesthesia, and a host of surgical techniques and procedures for treating cancers, hernias, goiters, and aneurysms. He made significant physiological and clinical studies of cancer, the thyroid and parathyroid glands, and many other subjects. His procedure for radical mastectomy was first described in a lengthy article on the treatment of wounds that was published in the 1890–91 issue of Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports. An expanded description appeared in the 1894–95 issue.