\zhēl-ber\, Augustin–Nicholas (1858–1927),
French physician. Gilbert is remembered for being one of the foremost clinicians of his time. He was professor of therapeutics at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, and from 1910 he served as professor of clinical medicine at the Hôtel-Dieu. He carried out work in the chemical activity of the stomach and in the pathology of the liver. With a colleague he identified a form of alcoholic cirrhosis. He is also remembered for his description of hereditary cholemia and his contributions to knowledge of lithiasis in the biliary region. Among his published articles was one, in 1900, in which he described a type of hereditary jaundice now known as Gilbert's syndrome.