vicariance

noun
vi·​car·​i·​ance | \vī-ˈker-ē-ən(t)s, və-\

Definition of vicariance 

: fragmentation of the environment (as by splitting of a tectonic plate) in contrast to dispersal as a factor in promoting biological evolution by division of large populations into isolated subpopulations

called also vicariance biogeography

First Known Use of vicariance

1957, in the meaning defined above

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The first known use of vicariance was in 1957

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