Apgar, Virginia (1909–1974),
American physician. Apgar began her medical career as an anesthesiologist and was for many years an attending anesthesiologist. As a result of her duties in the hospital delivery room, she developed a concern for the lack of immediate medical attention given the newborn. To rectify the situation she developed the Apgar score as a simple, quick test to determine the need for emergency treatment. The test soon became a standard procedure in hospitals all over the world. Turning to the study of congenital anomalies, Apgar became an authority on teratology and proper prenatal care.