Art form consisting of the production of images, usually on paper but occasionally on fabric, parchment, plastic, or other support, by various techniques of multiplication, under the direct supervision of or by the hand of the artist. Such fine prints are considered original works of art, even though they can exist in multiple copies. The major techniques are relief printing, where the background is cut away, leaving a raised image; intaglio printing, where the image is incised directly into the plate; surface printing such as lithography, where the image is painted or drawn onto a stone; and stencil printing, where the design is cut out and printed by spraying paint or ink through the stencil. The history of printmaking parallels the history of art and is one of the oldest art forms. Though he had several predecessors, the first important engraver was a 15th-century German, Martin Schongauer. In the 16th century Albrecht Dürer created prints of the highest quality, and in the 17th century the etchings of Rembrandt were especially fine. Japanese printmaking originated in the 17th century with the ukiyo-e school of woodcuts; the best-known artists were Hokusai and Hiroshige. Important 18th-century Western artists who made prints include William Hogarth, Francisco Goya, and Giambattista Piranesi. Among the works of 19th-century printmakers, those of Honoré Daumier and of many of the French Impressionists are notable. Experimentation in new styles and new directions proliferated in the 20th century, with artists from the century's major movementsincluding Expressionism, Surrealism, Pop art, Minimalism, and Neo-Expressionismall pursuing printmaking. See alsoengraving; etching; mezzotint; woodcut.