Publication usually issued daily, weekly, or at other regular times that provides news, views, features, and other information of public interest and often carries advertising. Forerunners of the modern newspaper appeared as early as ancient Rome (seeActa). More or less regular papers printed from movable type appeared in Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands in the early 17th century. The first English daily was The Daily Courant (1702–35). Though preceded by official papers, James Franklin's New-England Courant (1721) was the first independent newspaper in Britain's North American colonies. By 1800 the principles of a free press and a basic formula for both serious and popular papers were taking root in much of Europe and the U.S. In the 19th century the number of U.S. papers and their circulations rose dramatically, owing to wider literacy, broadening appeal, lower prices, and technological advances in typesetting, printing, communications, and transport. By late in the century, newspapers had achieved great power. Competition for readers often led to sensationalism and, in the 20th century, gave rise to the so-called tabloids (seeyellow journalism). Since 1900 newspaper publishing worldwide has expanded greatly; in large countries it has experienced consolidation driven by media conglomerates or through the acquisitions of smaller papers by larger ones.