Hand-printed wallpaper by Jean-Baptiste Réveillon, c. 1780–90; in the Victoria and —Courtesy of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; photograph, The Cooper-Bridgeman Library, London
Ornamental and utilitarian covering for walls made from long sheets of paper that have been stenciled, painted, or printed with abstract or narrative designs. Wallpaper developed soon after the introduction of papermaking to Europe in the late 15th century, originally as a substitute for tapestry, painted cloth, and wood paneling, and the first wallpapers were esteemed for the cleverness with which they mimicked the more costly wall coverings. In the 18th century, designs such as chintz patterns and stripes began to express the medium's decorative possibilities. In the mid-19th century, the wallpapers of William Morris, featuring stylized, naturalistic patterns, created a revolution in wallpaper design. Plastic coating now improves wallpaper's durability and maintenance.