U.S. domestic program of Pres. Franklin Roosevelt to bring economic relief (1933–39). The term was taken from Roosevelt's speech accepting the 1932 presidential nomination, in which he promised a new deal for the American people. New Deal legislation was enacted mainly in the first three months of 1933 (Roosevelt's hundred days) and established such agencies as the Civil Works Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps to alleviate unemployment, the National Recovery Administration to revive industrial production, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. and the Securities and Exchange Commission to regulate financial institutions, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to support farm production, and the Tennessee Valley Authority to provide public power and flood control. A second period of legislation (1935–36), often called the second New Deal, established the National Labor Relations Board, the Works Progress Administration, and the social security system. Some legislation was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court, and some programs did not accomplish their aims, but many reforms were continued by later administrations and permanently changed the role of government. See also Public Works Administration.
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