: incongruity between the actual result of a sequence of events and the normal or expected result
: an event or result marked by such incongruity
: incongruity between a situation developed in a drama and the accompanying words or actions that is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play
called alsodramatic irony
: a pretense of ignorance and of willingness to learn from another assumed in order to make the other's false conceptions conspicuous by adroit questioning
called alsoSocratic irony
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Considerable thought is given to what events constitute “true” irony, and the dictionary is often called upon to supply an answer. Here are the facts about how the word irony is used.
Irony has two formal uses that are not as common in general prose as its more casual uses. One refers to Socratic irony—a method of revealing an opponent’s ignorance by pretending to be ignorant yourself and asking probing questions. The other refers to dramatic irony or tragic irony—an incongruity between the situation in a drama and the words used by the characters that only the audience can see. Socratic irony is a tool used in debating; dramatic irony is what happens when the audience realizes that Romeo and Juliet’s plans will go awry.
The third, and debated, use of irony regards what’s called situational irony. Situational irony involves a striking reversal of what is expected or intended: a person sidesteps a pothole to avoid injury and in doing so steps into another pothole and injures themselves. Critics claim the words irony and ironic as they are used in cases lacking a striking reversal, such as “Isn’t it ironic that you called just as I was planning to call you?,” are more properly called coincidence.
The historical record shows that irony and ironic have been used imprecisely for almost 100 years at least, and often to refer to coincidence. This 1939 quote from F. Scott Fitzgerald is typical: "It is an ironic thought that the last picture job I took—against my better judgment—yielded me five thousand dollars five hundred and cost over four thousand in medical attention." Is this true situational irony? It’s debatable.
The word irony has come to be applied to events that are merely curious or coincidental, and while some feel this is an incorrect use of the word, it is merely a new one.
wit suggests the power to evoke laughter by remarks showing verbal felicity or ingenuity and swift perception especially of the incongruous.
a playful wit
humor implies an ability to perceive the ludicrous, the comical, and the absurd in human life and to express these usually without bitterness.
a sense of humor
irony applies to a manner of expression in which the intended meaning is the opposite of what is seemingly expressed.
the irony of the title
sarcasm applies to expression frequently in the form of irony that is intended to cut or wound.
given to heartless sarcasm
satire applies to writing that exposes or ridicules conduct, doctrines, or institutions either by direct criticism or more often through irony, parody, or caricature.
a satire on the Congress
repartee implies the power of answering quickly, pointedly, or wittily.
a dinner guest noted for repartee
The great irony of human intelligence is that the only species on Earth capable of reason, complex-problem solving, long-term planning and consciousness understands so little about the organ that makes it all possible—the brain. Amanda Bower, Time, 20 Aug. 2001The great irony of anthracite is that, tough as it is to light, once you get it lit it's nearly impossible to put out. Bill Bryson, A Walk in the Woods, 1999And the irony is obvious: those who once had been the victims of separatism, who had sacrificed so dearly to overcome their being at the margins, would later create an ethos of their own separatism. Shelby Steele, Harper's, July 1992
a writer known for her clever use of irony
“What a beautiful view,” he said, his voice dripping with irony, as he looked out the window at the alley.
She described her vacation with heavy irony as “an educational experience.”
It was a tragic irony that he made himself sick by worrying so much about his health.
That's just one of life's little ironies.
The irony of the situation was apparent to everyone.
He has a strong sense of irony. See More
Recent Examples on the WebThe irony is that gerrymandering made the GOP takeover possible.
Brynn Tannehill, The New Republic, 16 Nov. 2022 The irony is that Peevy once wanted to be on the receiving end of passes.
Don Norcross, San Diego Union-Tribune, 16 Nov. 2022 The irony was Bam Adebayo being asked about finally asserting himself at moments of truth.
Ira Winderman, Sun Sentinel, 15 Nov. 2022 The irony, Mastro said, is that a Japanese decision to join in would likely be decisive.
Dexter Filkins, The New Yorker, 14 Nov. 2022 The irony is that Biden has, in some arenas, maintained the Trump-era status quo, refusing to drop tariffs on China.
Ishaan Tharoor, Washington Post, 14 Nov. 2022 The irony, of course, is that at no point in this scene does West’s Charles actually advocate for his mother’s abdication.
Lauren Puckett-pope, ELLE, 9 Nov. 2022 The irony is that the promise of a midseason World Cup, which was moved to November due to the dangerously high temperatures of Qatar in the summer, was that players might arrive fresher than usual.
Joshua Robinson, WSJ, 9 Nov. 2022 The irony is the Colts chose a guard, another position that ranks lower in positional value.
Brad Biggs, Chicago Tribune, 7 Nov. 2022 See More
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'irony.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.
Latin ironia, from Greek eirōnia, from eirōn dissembler