castigate

verb

cas·​ti·​gate ˈka-stə-ˌgāt How to pronounce castigate (audio)
castigated; castigating

transitive verb

: to subject to severe punishment, reproof, or criticism
The judge castigated the lawyers for their lack of preparation.
castigation noun
castigator noun

Did you know?

Castigate has a synonym in chastise. Both verbs mean to punish or to censure someone. Fittingly, both words derive from the same root: the Latin castigare, formed from the words for "pure" (castus) and "to drive" (agere). (Castus also gave us the noun caste, meaning "social class or rank.") Another verb derived from castigare is chasten, which can also mean "to discipline by punishment" but more commonly means "to subdue or make humble" (as in "chastened by his foolish error"). Castigate is the youngest of the three verbs in English, dating from the early 17th century, while chasten dates to the early 16th century and chastise has been found in use as far back as the 14th.

Choose the Right Synonym for castigate

punish, chastise, castigate, chasten, discipline, correct mean to inflict a penalty on in requital for wrongdoing.

punish implies subjecting to a penalty for wrongdoing.

punished for stealing

chastise may apply to either the infliction of corporal punishment or to verbal censure or denunciation.

chastised his son for neglecting his studies

castigate usually implies a severe, typically public censure.

an editorial castigating the entire city council

chasten suggests any affliction or trial that leaves one humbled or subdued.

chastened by a landslide election defeat

discipline implies a punishing or chastening in order to bring under control.

parents must discipline their children

correct implies punishing aimed at reforming an offender.

the function of prison is to correct the wrongdoer

Examples of castigate in a Sentence

The author castigated the prime minister as an ineffective leader. castigated him for his constant tardiness
Recent Examples on the Web Even the teams at the foot of the table, the ones who have spent the last nine months being castigated and chastised for their every move, are most likely far stronger than their counterparts in Italy, Spain, Germany and France. Rory Smith, New York Times, 29 Mar. 2024 Chinese officials have castigated Lai, a former doctor, as a dangerous separatist who could drag Taiwan into a devastating war. Stephanie Yang, Los Angeles Times, 13 Jan. 2024 Epps has castigated McCluskie online and exchanged attacks with fellow legislators. Nick Coltrain, The Denver Post, 13 Jan. 2024 The former White House physician has become a prominent voice in the 2024 campaign, repeatedly affirming Trump’s fitness to serve while castigating President Biden’s. Alex Horton, Washington Post, 7 Mar. 2024 The report repeatedly castigates Israel’s allies and the United Nations for ignoring Palestinians’ plight. Nabih Bulos and A Times Special Correspondent, Los Angeles Times, 31 Jan. 2024 The rare exception was when gas prices soared after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the president castigated the industry for not producing enough oil while raking in record profits. Lisa Friedman, New York Times, 26 Jan. 2024 This was the world in which Casanova circulated, one in which enjoyment and indulgence were encouraged, not castigated. Gaile Robinson, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 31 Jan. 2024 He was castigated for authorizing telephone wiretaps of reporters and his own National Security Council staff to plug news leaks in Mr. Nixon’s White House. Nancy Benac, The Christian Science Monitor, 30 Nov. 2023

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'castigate.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

Etymology

borrowed from Latin castīgātus, past participle of castīgāre "to discipline for a fault or lapse, reprove, censure," perhaps from *casti-, stem of *castis "reprimand" (going back to Indo-European *ḱHs-ti-, whence also Sanskrit śiṣṭi- "instruction") + *-ig-, going back to Indo-European -h2ǵ-, zero-grade of *h2eǵ- "drive, impel, lead" — more at agent

Note: This etymology follows G. Dunkel, "Latin verbs in -igāre and -īgāre," 125 Jahre Indogermanistik in Graz (Graz: Leykam, 2000), pp. 87-99. According to the older conventional explanation, the initial element is the adjective castus "free from, untouched (by the thing specified), pure, not sexually promiscuous" (see chaste), but semantically this is a poor fit, and does not clearly account for the long ī. On the other hand, Dunkel's hypothesis would mean that Indo-European *ḱeHs- shows up in Latin only in this presumed i-stem derivative and nowhere else, unless castus itself can be attributed to the same etymon—but again that does not fit well semantically ("instruct, reprove" > "pure"?). See also the note at chaste.

First Known Use

1606, in the meaning defined above

Time Traveler
The first known use of castigate was in 1606

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Cite this Entry

“Castigate.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/castigate. Accessed 20 Apr. 2024.

Kids Definition

castigate

verb
cas·​ti·​gate ˈkas-tə-ˌgāt How to pronounce castigate (audio)
castigated; castigating
: to punish, scold, or criticize harshly
castigation noun
castigator noun

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