In elementary school, after you learn to count, you learn the basics of *arithmetic*. This is the branch of mathematics concerned with the relationships between numbers, measurements, and computation, among other things. The ancient Egyptians and Babylonians are credited with the earliest documented evidence of accounting using numerals and place values.

The word *arithmetic* ultimately derives from the Greek noun *arithmos*, meaning "number," with stops along the way in Latin, Anglo-French, and Middle English.

Even the simplest math has a deep vocabulary. The four primary arithmetical operations are *addition*, *subtraction*, *multiplication*, and *division*.
In addition, one or more addends are combined to produce a sum. In subtraction, a subtrahend is removed from a minuend to produce a difference.

In multiplication, a multiplicand is added to itself repeatedly the number of times indicated by a multiplier to produce a product.

In division, a dividend is split the number of times indicated by a divisor to produce a quotient, leaving a remainder if the dividend is not an exact multiple of the divisor.