ALPHABET TABLE


Showing the letters of five non-Roman alphabets and the transliterations used in the etymologies

Hebrew1,4 Arabic3,4 Greek7 Russian8 Sanskrit11
aleph 2
beth b, bh
gimel g, gh
daleth d, dh
he h
waw w
zayin z
heth
teth
yod y
kaph k, kh
lamed l
mem m
nun n
samekh s
ayin
pe p, ph
sadhe
qoph q
resh r
sin
shin sh
taw t, th
alif 5
b
t
th
j
kh
d
dh
r
z
s
sh
‘ayn
ghayn gh
f
q
k
l
m
n
h6
w
y
alpha a
beta b
gamma g, n
delta d
epsilon e
zeta z
eta
theta th
iota i
kappa k
lambda l
mu m
nu n
xi x
omicron o
pi p
rho r, rh
sigma s
tau t
upsilon y, u
phi ph
chi ch
psi ps
omega
a
b
v
g
d
e
zh
z
k
l
m
n
o
p
r
s
t
u
f
kh
ts
ch
sh
shch
’’
y
e
yu
ya
a  
 
i  
 
u  
 
  t
  th
  d
  dh
e   n
ai   p
o   ph
au   b
  bh
  m
k   y
kh   r
g   l
gh   v
 
c  
ch   s
j   h
jh      

1 See ALEPH, BETH, etc., in the vocabulary. Where two forms of a letter are given, the one at the right is the form used at the end of a word.
2 Not represented in transliteration when initial.
3 The left column shows the form of each Arabic letter that is used when it stands alone, the second column its form when it is joined to the preceding letter, the third column its form when it is joined to both the preceding and the following letter, and the right column its form when it is joined to the following letter only. In the names of the Arabic letters, , , and respectively are pronounced like a in father, i in machine, u in rude.
4 Hebrew and Arabic are written from right to left. The Hebrew and Arabic letters are all primarily consonants; a few of them are also used secondarily to represent certain vowels, but full indication of vowels, when provided at all, is by means of a system of dots or strokes adjacent to the consonantal characters.
5 Alif represents no sound in itself, but is used principally as an indicator of the presence of a glottal stop (transliterated ’ medially and finally; not represented in transliteration when initial) and as the sign of a long a.
6 When has two dots above it ( ), it is called and, if it immediately precedes a vowel, is transliterated t instead of h.
7 See
ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA, etc., in the vocabulary. The letter gamma is transliterated n only before velars; the letter upsilon is transliterated u only as the final element in diphthongs.
8 See
CYRILLIC in the vocabulary.
9 This sign indicates that the immediately preceding consonant is not palatalized even though immediately followed by a palatal vowel.
10 This sign indicates that the immediately preceding consonant is palatalized even though not immediately followed by a palatal vowel.
11 The alphabet shown here is the Devanagari. When vowels are combined with preceding consonants they are indicated by various strokes or hooks instead of by the signs here given, or, in the case of short a, not written at all. Thus the character represents ka; the character , ; the character , ki; the character , ; the character , ku; the character , ; the character , ; the character , ; the character , ke; the character , kai; the character , ko; the character , kau; and the character , k without any following vowel. There are also many compound characters representing combinations of two or more consonants.