PROOFREADERS' MARKS


Symbol Meaning Example
delete
close up
delete and close up
caret
insert a space
space evenly
let stand
transpose
used to separate two or more
marks and often as a concluding
stroke at the end of an insertion
 
set farther to the left
set farther to the right
set as ligature (such as )
align horizontally
align vertically
broken character
indent or insert em quad space  
begin a new paragraph  
spell out
set in CAPITALS
set in SMALL CAPITALS
set in lowercase
set in italic
set in roman
set in boldface
hyphen multi-colored
en dash 1965–72
em (or long) dash Now—at last!—we know.
superscript or superior
subscript or inferior
centered
comma  
apostrophe  
period  
semicolon  
colon  
quotation marks  
parentheses  
brackets  
query to author: has this been
set as intended?
 
push down a work-up
turn over an inverted letter
wrong font

1The last three symbols are unlikely to be needed in marking proofs of photocomposed matter.