Pancoast, Henry Khunrath (1875–1939), American radiologist. One of the pioneers in radiology, Pancoast exerted a major influence in the development of radiology as a science. In 1902 he became head of the X-ray department at the University of Pennsylvania medical school, and from 1912 he held the post of professor of roentgenology (later called radiology). His major contributions included his collective studies on the healthy chest, the X-ray diagnosis of intracranial disease, and his studies on silicosis and pneumoconiosis. He described Pancoast's tumor in 1932.