Esmarch, Johannes Friedrich August von (1823–1908), German surgeon. Esmarch was a military surgeon who introduced a number of innovative measures and devices for battlefield use. The author of a widely used first-aid manual, he instituted training in first aid for civilian and military personnel. In 1869 he introduced the use of the first-aid bandage on the battlefield. Four years later during the Franco-Prussian War he developed the bandage now known as the Esmarch bandage.