Eck, Nikolai Vladimirovich (1849–1908), Russian physiologist. Eck developed the surgical procedure that bears his name in 1877. The operation made possible the experimental study of diseases of the liver and the investigation of the role of the liver in metabolism. He was a pioneer in the surgical treatment of neoplastic disease, and he wrote on nasal and laryngeal polyps. Eck was also interested in epidemiology, sanitation, and geology.