Bouchard, Charles Jacques (1837–1915), French pathologist. For most of his career Bouchard was associated with the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Paris, being head of its clinic from 1868 and a member of the faculty from 1869. He became known for his research in urosepsis as well as for his work on diseases resulting from malnutrition. Bouchard is also remembered for his pioneering use of X-rays to diagnose bone diseases, fractures, and dislocations. In 1884 he made the connection between osteoarthritis and bony enlargements of the middle joints of the fingers.