Retrieved May 8, 2011, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hacker
Citing Other Online Sources
There is no universally accepted standard for citing online sources, but it is generally adequate to
indicate the document's Web address, or URL (uniform resource locator), somewhere in the citation, usually
following the date on which the electronic document was published, posted, or last revised (if known).
Thus a typical citation of an online source would show the author's name, the title of the document, the title
of the complete work (such as the name of a periodical) in italics, the date, and the full URL. A URL is composed
of the protocol used (such as http for Web pages; other less common protocols include gopher,
ftp, and telnet), the server's identification, the directory path, and the file's name.
Here are a five sample citations of online sources:
Agmon, Eytan. "Beethoven's Op. 81a and the Psychology of Loss." Music Theory Online 2, 4 (1996).
Thursby, Ray. "Hopping into hybrids." Salon.com. Aug. 2000. http://www.salon.com/business/feature/2000/08/15/hybrid/index.html
In many cases it is necessary or desirable to include the date of access as well. Note that the date of access will often
be the only date shown, since many online documents do not include dates.
Walker, John. "Resources for Learning French." http://www.fourmilab.ch/francais/1french.html (12 Aug. 2007).
Periodicals published on paper that happen to be accessed online may be cited just like normal periodicals, with no
acknowledgment of their online status, if it is clear that the text has not been altered for the online version.
References to mailing lists or newsgroup postings should begin with the author's name, include the subject line (or
a made-up descriptive subject line), and provide the name and electronic address of the mailing-list server or newsgroup
and the date posted. A personal e-mail message can be called "Personal communication" with no mention of its electronic medium.
Many mailing-list discussions are archived after messages are posted. Archives are usually maintained on the
mailing list's server and may also be available through a Web page. An archived message is cited in its original
form unless the message was accessed through a Web server rather than the list server or newsgroup.
McCarty, Willard. "The Fate of Universities." 13 June 1997. Humanist Discussion Group.
Note: Since many online sources are highly subject to change or deletion, any online text likely to be
cited including personal e-mail messages should always be either downloaded onto a disk or printed
out and stored on paper (with a notation of the date accessed) as a permanent record.