Province (pop., 2002 est.: 43,330,000), southern China. It is bordered by Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar, Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and Guangxi and Tibet autonomous regions. It has an area of 168,400 sq mi (436,200 sq km), and its capital is Kunming. Its population is one of China's most ethnically mixed, comprising more than 20 nationalities. The terrain is largely mountainous, especially in the north and west. It is crossed by three major river systemsthe Yangtze (Chang; there known as the Jinsha), the Mekong, and the Salweenand is the source of two othersthe Xi (there known as the Nanpan and Hongshui) and the Yuan. Because of its isolation, the region was independent during the historical development of China. The Mongols overran it in the 13th century. In 1855–73 it was the scene of the great Panthay (Muslim) rebellion. Part of the province was seized by the Japanese in World War II. Yunnan is now noted for its agricultural production, especially of rice, as well as for its extensive mining industry.