Administrative (pop., 2001: 505,885) and historic county, central England. As an administrative and geographic unit, the county dates from the 10th century, with the historic county town of Warwick lying roughly at its centre. In Saxon times Warwickshire formed a border zone between the kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia. During the Middle Ages two major centres grew up in the county, at Warwick and Kenilworth. Historical structures surviving in the area include Norman and early English churches, along with buildings at Stratford-upon-Avon associated with William Shakespeare. The Battle of Edgehill (1642), the first serious clash of the English Civil Wars, was fought in Warwickshire near the Oxfordshire border. Farming, dairy farming, fruit growing, market gardening, and coal mining are important economic activities.