City (pop., 2006 est.: 846,349), western Russia. It lies along the Voronezh River above its confluence with the Don. It was founded in 1586 as a fortress. Peter I (the Great) built a naval flotilla in Voronezh for use in his campaigns against the Turks. With the agricultural development of the region, it became a centre for the grain trade. Occupied by the Germans and largely destroyed in World War II, it was rebuilt in the postwar era. It has a range of engineering, chemical, and food-processing industries. Its university was established in 1918.