City (pop., 2006 est.: 999,122), southwestern Russia. Located on the Volga River, it was founded as the fortress of Tsaritsyn in 1589. During the Russian Civil War (1918–20), Joseph Stalin organized the city's defense against the White Russian armies, and it was later renamed in his honour. During World War II it was reduced to rubble in the Battle of Stalingrad; it was rebuilt in the postwar era. Its manufactures include steel and aluminum, engineering products, timber goods, building materials, and foodstuffs. A major railroad junction and river port, it is the eastern terminus of the Volga-Don Ship Canal.