City (pop., 2001 est.: 256,420), central Netherlands. The site of successive Roman, Frisian, and Frankish fortresses, it became an episcopal see in 696 under St. Willibrord. It was most prosperous during the 11th and 12th centuries, when it was an important commercial centre. In 1527 it was transferred to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and became part of the Habsburg dominions. It was ruled by Spain until the 1570s, when it became a centre of Protestant resistance. It was the site of the signing of the Union of Utrecht (1579), which established a league of northern Dutch provinces against Spain; the league was the basis of the future Netherlands kingdom. Occupied by the French (1795–1813), it was the residence of Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland (1806–10). The only Dutch pope, Adrian VI, was born in Utrecht. It is a transportation, financial, and insurance centre.