City (pop., 2006 est.: 1,029,616), western Russia. Lying at the confluence of the Belaya and Ufa rivers, it was founded as a fortress in 1574 to protect the trade route across the Ural Mountains from Kazan to Tyumen. It became a town in 1586. It developed as an industrial centre from the late 19th century and especially after World War II. Chief industries include electrical equipment, lumber and veneer, and oil refining.