Bath originating in the Middle East, combining exposure to warm air, steam immersion, massage, and a cold bath or shower. The Turkish bath (hammam) reflects the fusion of the massage and cosmetic aspects of the Eastern bath tradition and the plumbing and heating techniques of the Romans. Turkish baths were smaller than the Roman thermae and more sparsely lit. The baths at Constantinople were domed, and rooms were richly decorated with marble or mosaics. Used for socializing and relaxation as well as bathing, the hammam was popular throughout the Islamic world; some baths are still in use. In the 19th century, the Turkish bath was adapted and exported to Europe and the U.S.