Former Bantustan, Republic of South Africa. It bordered the Indian Ocean and Lesotho. It was created by South Africa in 1959 as the first Bantustan and was designated (together with Ciskei) for the Xhosa-speaking peoples (seeXhosa). In 1976 the South African government declared Transkei to be independent, and all black Africans with language ties to Transkei (whether or not they lived there) lost their South African citizenship and became citizens of the new country. Existing only as an element of South Africa's apartheid system, it never received international recognition. After apartheid was abolished, the region was reincorporated into South Africa in 1994 as part of the new Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces.