City (pop., 2004 est.: 426,700), on the Garonne River in southern France. Founded in ancient times, it was taken from its Celtic inhabitants by the Romans in the 1st century BC. After AD 778 it became the seat of the feudal countship of Toulouse. Protestants were massacred there during the 16th-century Wars of Religion. In 1814 it was the scene of the British victory over the French in the last battle of the Peninsular War. A rail junction and canal port, Toulouse is a centre of the French aviation industry. It has many historic buildings, including a Gothic cathedral and a Romanesque basilica, and the tomb of St. Thomas Aquinas. The university, founded in 1229, is one of the oldest in the world.