City (pop., 2003 est.: city, 8,083,980; metro. area, 12,310,000), capital of Japan. The country's largest city, it is located in east-central Honshu at the head of Tokyo Bay. The site has been inhabited since ancient times, and the small fishing village of Edo existed there for centuries before it became the capital of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603 (see Tokugawa period). By the 19th century it was one of the largest cities in the world, with a population exceeding 1,000,000. Under the Meiji Restoration, in 1868 it replaced Kyoto as the imperial capital, and Edo was renamed Tokyo (Eastern Capital). A massive earthquake in the region in 1923 destroyed most of the city and killed at least 100,000 people, but most of it had been rebuilt by 1930. Much of it was again devastated by U.S. bombing during World War II and had to be reconstructed. The Summer Olympic Games were held there in 1964. Tokyo is the administrative, cultural, financial, commercial, and educational centre of Japan and the focus of an extensive urban complex that includes Kawasaki and Yokohama. Attractions include the Imperial Palace, encircled by stone-walled moats and broad gardens, and numerous temples and shrines. There are some 150 institutions of higher learning, including the University of Tokyo (1877).