Any member of the Turkic-speaking peoples who today live mainly in west-central Russia east to the Ural Mountains, in Kazakhstan, and in western Siberia. They first appeared as nomadic tribes in northeastern Mongolia in the 5th century. Some joined the armies of Genghis Khan. Especially identified with the Golden Horde, they were converted to Islam in the 14th century. The Golden Horde soon became independent Tatar khanates (seekhan). Their economy was based on mixed farming and herding, which remain central to their economy. They developed craftsmanship in wood, ceramics, leather, cloth, and metal and have been well known as traders. Today there are about six million Tatars in all regions; they constitute about half the population of the Russian republic of Tatarstan. See alsoTatar language.