City (pop., 2003 est.: 1,970,300), capital of Shanxi province, China, lying on the Fen River. Known since the time of the Zhou dynasty, it was a strategic centre and administrative capital in the time of the Mongols (12th–14th century). In 1900 it was the scene of a massacre of foreign missionaries during the Boxer Rebellion and was one of the first areas to oppose the emperor in 1911. Invaded by the Japanese in 1937, it was again besieged by communist forces in 1948–49. One of the most important industrial cities in China, it produces cement, iron and steel, and coal. It also is an education and research centre. There are notable cave temples from the Tang and Yuan eras in the area.