City (pop., 2006: 4,119,191), capital of New South Wales, Australia. Located on Australia's southeastern coast, it is the oldest and largest city in Australia and a major commercial and manufacturing centre. It was founded in 1788 as a penal colony (seeBotany Bay) and quickly became a major trading centre. It is built on low hills surrounding one of the world's finest natural harbours, which supports extensive port facilities. It is dominated by Sydney Harbour Bridge, one of the biggest single-span bridges in the world, and the Sydney Opera House. The city is widely known for its water sports, recreational facilities, and cultural life. It is the site of the Universities of Sydney (1850) and New South Wales (1949) and Macquarie University (1964). Sydney was the host of the 2000 Summer Olympic Games.