Seaport city (pop., 2003 est.: 2,660,381), northeastern coast of Java, Indonesia. It is Indonesia's second-largest city and has been eastern Java's chief trading centre since the 14th century. The Dutch gained control in the 18th century and built their main East Indies naval base there. Occupied by the Japanese in World War II, it suffered heavy damage; it was damaged again during Indonesia's war for independence (1945–49). It is the site of Indonesia's main naval base and a naval college, and of Airlangga University (1954).