City (pop., 2002 est.: city, 587,152; urban agglom., 2,529,675), southwestern Germany. Located on the Neckar River, Stuttgart was originally a 10th-century stud farm. It became a town in the 13th century and passed to the counts of Württemberg, serving as their capital until the 19th century. The Thirty Years' War, French invasions in the 17th century, and heavy bombing during World War II took a toll on the city. Many historic buildings have been rebuilt, including the 13th-century castle. It is a cultural, transportation, industrial, and publishing centre. The University of Stuttgart was founded in 1829.