City (pop., 2003 est.: 3,995,500), capital of Liaoning province, northeastern China. An ancient city, it was the Manchu capital (1625–44) before the establishment of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty. After 1895 it was fought over by Russia and Japan in the struggle for Manchuria. It was occupied by the Japanese (1931–45). Taken by the communist forces in 1948, it was a base for their conquest of the whole of China. It is one of China's leading industrial cities; its manufactures include machinery, wires and cables, textiles, and chemicals. It is also a cultural and educational centre.