City (pop., 2000: 563,374) and seaport, Washington, U.S. It is the largest city in the state and the commercial, industrial, and financial centre of the Pacific Northwest. Situated between Elliott Bay (Puget Sound) and Lake Washington, it is flanked by the Olympic Mountains and the Cascade Range. Laid out in 1853, it withstood an Indian attack (1856), anti-Chinese riots (1880s), and a disastrous fire (1889) to emerge as the gateway to the Orient and Alaska. It was the main supply depot for the Yukon and Alaskan gold rushes (seegold rush) in the 1890s. World War II brought a great boom to the city, with shipyards and the aircraft industry playing important roles. Seattle Center, site of the 1962 World's Fair, contains the 607-ft (185-m) Space Needle. Seattle's educational institutions include the University of Washington (1861).